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August 12, 2022

Switzerland: Diphtheria

Up to 8 people living in a center in the capital, Bern, contracted diphtheria, but had no difficulties breathing, a spokesman for the state secretariat for Migration said Aug. 2. The infected group of people were put in isolation, and more than 170 other asylum seekers, notably unaccompanied minors, are in quarantine at the center. The former hospital houses up to 350 people during the first phase of their asylum procedure.

Diphtheria rarely occurs in western Europe, where children for decades have been vaccinated against the highly contagious infection of the nose and throat. However, diphtheria is still common in developing countries, according to experts. The last known case of the infectious disease in Switzerland was recorded in 1983, the Federal Office of Public Health writes.

France: Avian Influenza

The highly pathogenic bird flu, or avian influenza [HPAI], has been detected at a turkey farm in northern France, causing the cull of at least 8,000 turkeys, French daily news Le Figaro reported Aug. 1.

"Regulated protection and surveillance zones have been set up within a radius of 3-10 km," local authorities of the city of Feuilleres, in the northern department of Somme of France, said in a press release. The first outbreak of the high pathogenic bird flu was found at the turkey farm. According to the release, all places of poultry and captive birds are subject to specific measures, in particular the prohibition of movements of poultry and captive birds. The state veterinary services are mobilized alongside the breeder who will be compensated for the losses suffered.

Since November 2021, France has reported more than 1,300 outbreaks of HPAI virus and ordered the cull of 20 million birds. During the period from autumn 2020 to spring 2021, 500 outbreaks of HPAI were detected and 3.5 million birds culled in the country.

United States: Equine Infectious Encephalitis

The Florida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services has reported 2 new cases of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE).

A 7 year old mustang mare in Polk County used for pleasure riding showed signs of inappetence and lethargy on June 19. She was under-vaccinated and euthanized following her June 30 positive test.

Also, a yearling quarter horse filly in Bradford County presented with a fever, depression, ataxia, aimless wandering, listlessness, and hind-limb weakness on June 22. She tested positive on June 30 and was euthanized.

These are the 5th and 6th confirmed cases of EEE in Florida in 2022.

Canada: Avian Influenza

Quebec researchers have detected avian flu in at least 2 species of seal, and they fear the virus is to blame for the unusually high number of dead seals reported on the province's shorelines.

A marine mammal research group, the Réseau québécois d'urgences pour les mammifères marins, says about 100 harbor seal carcasses have been found since January along the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in eastern Quebec -- almost 6 times more than in an average year. "In June alone, the number reached 65 carcasses," the research group said in a statement on Aug. 2. "Avian influenza was quickly suspected of playing a role in the increasing mortality."

About 15 of the dead harbor seals have tested positive for the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu, with the 1st case detected in a grey seal last week, said Stéphane Lair, a professor of veterinary medicine at Université de Montréal. He said the seals most likely were in contact with carcasses of infected eider ducks when they came ashore to give birth at the beginning of the summer. "Some seals, including the grey seal, are known for eating wild birds ... but not harbor seals," Lair said in an interview. "They are curious, they will smell carcasses."

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

In all, 886 animals have got infected with lumpy skin disease (LSD) and 22 head of cattle have died in Muktsar. LSD symptoms include fever, nodules on skin, watery eyes and increased nasal and salivary secretions in cattle.

Ironically, the district animal husbandry office has just $314 to take precautionary measures. Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Dairy Development minister Laljit Singh Bhullar on Aug.1 instructed veterinary staff to intensify the campaign to tackle contagious lumpy skin disease. The district-level teams have been formed to protect the livestock. A team from North Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Jalandhar, is also visiting the affected areas.

The cases are mainly reported in Fazilka, Muktsar, Moga and Faridkot districts. An additional $629 has been allocated for Fazilka and other districts.

India: Leptospirosis

Six people have tested positive for leptospirosis, the dreaded bacterial infection, in the last few days in the city of Pune, doctors said on Aug. 3. The condition of one of them, a woman, is critical.

"The woman is a homemaker from Kasba Peth (the oldest residential sector in Pune), whose liver and lungs have been severely affected. At a time when our wards and intensive care units are filled with patients infected with H1N1, dengue and COVID-19 cases, leptospirosis is one more addition," said KEM hospital's senior physician Dr. Rajesh Gadia. Dr. Gadia has come across 4 patients with a lab-confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis in the last few days. "One was a 40 year old mutton shop operator from Kondhwa," he said. Two other patients were from Somwar Peth.

Leptospirosis, a disease often associated with farmers and animal handlers, has left 6 unwell and one among them critical in the city. "Finding cases in the city areas is considered unusual. But in view of the presence of stray animals on the city's roads and rodents in the sewage, citizens can come in direct contact with water or food contaminated with animal urine and feces, resulting in leptospirosis," said Gadia.

Kazakhstan: Brucellosis

Quarantine has been introduced in a village of the Akmola oblast, due to an outbreak of brucellosis in which more than 2 dozen sheep in the village Petrovka became infected. The presence of the dangerous disease was established by laboratory tests. Restrictive measures have been introduced in the village, Liter.kz reports with reference to Khabar 24.

Now a state anti-epizootic delegation is working in Petrovka. The livestock will be tested every 15 days. Veterinarians say that the uncontrolled import of livestock is the cause of the outbreak of the virus in the village.

"The reason is the failure to notify the veterinary service about the import of livestock. Also, failure to carry out the required quarantine measures upon delivery. That is, quarantine is imposed by the veterinary service and [stock are] examined for brucellosis and other diseases. This has not been done, since they did not notify" said the head of the regional veterinary department, Talgat Zhunusov.

India: Japanese Encephalitis

As the flood water recedes after unprecedented rain in Assam, the fear of Japanese encephalitis is looming large in the state. Usually, when flood-affected people go home from relief centers, the risk of mosquito and waterborne diseases is high.

Since the outbreak of the disease, 52 people have died so far, according to the National Health Mission in Assam. On Aug. 2, 4 people died in Nagaon district, which is one of the worst affected districts of Assam. A total of 305 people were detected with the mosquito-borne disease in one month.

According to state health officials, besides Japanese Encephalitis, acute encephalitis syndrome has killed 16 people this year and there are 143 cases so far. The state health department has taken steps to create awareness and has undertaken various preventive measures.

Ghana: Marburg Virus Disease

A child who contracted the highly infectious Ebola-like Marburg virus in Ghana has died, a World Health Organization official said on Aug. 2. The death brings the total number of fatalities in the country to 3 since Ghana registered its first ever outbreak of the disease last month.

The outbreak is only the second in West Africa. The first ever case of the virus in the region was detected last year in Guinea.

The virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through direct contact with bodily fluids, surfaces and materials, WHO said.

The dead child, whose gender or age were not disclosed, was one of 2 new cases reported last week by WHO. "Last week I mentioned the 2 additional cases. One is the wife of the index case and the other one is the child of the index case and the child unfortunately died, but the wife is still alive and improving," WHO doctor Ibrahima Soce Fall told reporters. The Ghanaian health ministry has only reported 3 confirmed cases and further testing remains to be done on a 4th suspected case, Soce Fall said.

India: African Swine Fever

The African Swine Fever (ASF) has now spread to wild animals in Mizoram, and it appears that vaccination is the only option left to contain the outbreak of the killer pig disease, a senior official said on Aug. 6. The state government has decided to write to the Centre requesting it to import vaccines against the viral disease from Viet Nam, animal husbandry and veterinary department joint director (livestock health) Dr. Lalhmingthanga told PTI.

"Samples extracted from carcasses of wild boars found in 2 forest areas in Champhai district were sent to the National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases in Bhopal. It has recently confirmed that they died of ASF," he said. Carcasses of 2 female wild boars and a piglet were found in a jungle about 6 km from Leisenzo village in Champhai district on July 19. Cadavers of wild pigs were also found in a forest in Samthanga area in the same district, he said.

Earlier, ASF was reported only from farms and households in the north eastern state. "It is now believed that the disease cannot be eradicated through the existing containment measures being taken according to the National Action Plan, as the outbreak is now considered endemic," Lalhmingthanga said. He said that vaccination is the only solution to contain the outbreak right now. "Vaccines (against ASF) are available in Viet Nam, but the Center's approval is required to import them," the official said.

Venezuela: Leptospirosis

Doctors from the Luis Razetti Hospital in Barinas say that 5 people have been admitted to the health center allegedly infected with leptospirosis. They contracted the disease after bathing in a lagoon in the town of Boconoito, Portuguesa State.

Patients are under observation, due to the deadly effect of this disease. The doctors took samples for evaluation at the National Institute of Hygiene in Caracas. While leptospirosis is being confirmed, patients are given preventive treatment in search of their recovery, reported La Patilla.

At the Razetti Hospital in Barinas, the death of a young doctor due to hemorrhagic fever was also confirmed, according to epidemiologist Cecilia Chávez, who was asked for an explanation on how this disease is spread, which is also deadly.

Despite the cases that were registered in the 1st health center in Barinas, the authorities of the Luis Razetti Hospital have not made an official statement to alert the population about what they should do to avoid more infections, especially in the winter season.

United Kingdom: Avian Influenza

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Wales has confirmed that a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has reached Grassholm Island off the Pembrokeshire coast after a spate of gannet deaths.

The island is home to the world's 3rd largest colony of the bird species, with 36,000 pairs. It is also one of only 2 gannet colonies in Wales.

In recent months, HPAI cases have been identified in other parts of England and Wales.

The avian charity said it has been "living in hope" that Grassholm would manage to avoid the spread of the disease.

However, testing by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has confirmed the bird population on Grassholm has been affected by the influenza strain, following a spate of suspicious gannet deaths.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

Vaccination of livestock against anthrax began in Bakai-Ata district of Talas region, the district administration said. The district department of veterinary and phytosanitary inspectorate is conducting vaccination.

"Cattle vaccination was carried out in Bakai-Ata, Oro, Boo-Terek villages. Anthrax was reported in the neighboring district, which borders these rural municipalities," the statement said.

Anthrax foci exist in Bakai-Ata, Ak-Dobo, Shadykan, and Boo-Terek villages. Soil samples from there are tested twice a year. The last safety check was conducted this spring.

Dogs are also vaccinated against rabies and echinococcus, the report says.

Taiwan: Japanese Encephalitis

The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported Aug. 5 three more confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan, from Kaohsiung City, Changhwa County, and Yunlin County.

This brings the country total to 13 in 2022.

Uzbekistan: Anthrax

In the Syrdarya region, a case of anthrax infection in humans was detected. The Service for Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare and Public Health (SES) stated that there is no reason for concern, a Podrobno.uz correspondent reports.

The Service for Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare and Public Health confirmed the detection of anthrax but emphasized that "at present, the epidemiological situation is stable and there is no cause for concern. In addition, with this disease, quarantine applies only to cattle and small ruminants."

"This disease differs in that it is not transmitted from person to person. The disease is transmitted to humans only in the process of slaughtering cattle and small cattle infected with this disease, as well as due to contact with raw meat," SES representatives emphasized.

Currently, veterinary workers have vaccinated cattle and small cattle on the territory of the Zaamin makhalla of the Sardoba region.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

At least 156 Filipinos have died of leptospirosis this year so far, the Department of Health (DOH) said Aug. 9. In a press briefing, DOH officer-in-charge Maria Rosario Vergeire said that a total of 1,178 leptospirosis cases have been recorded in 2022.

The DOH OIC said that the regions that have recorded the most leptospirosis cases in this most recent period were the National Capital Region (NCR), Cagayan Valley, and Central Luzon.

Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal bacterial disease that affects humans and animals alike. It is caused by the spiral-shaped Leptospira bacteria, which can be transmitted to humans through exposure to the urine of infected animals or water or soil that has been contaminated by infected animal urine.

Floods can potentially increase the transmission of the disease. "We know that every time there is a rainy season, it floods, and the public becomes more vulnerable to the illness," Vergeire said. Vergeire earlier urged the public to take precautions when wading through floodwaters: to wear boots, wash their feet after contact with floodwater, and to get checked by a healthcare professional in case of symptoms.

 

August 5, 2022

India: Japanese Encephalitis

Another 3 persons died of Japanese encephalitis in Assam on July 26, taking the toll to 44 in July, an official release said. According to the statement of the National Health Mission, Assam, 8 new cases raised the tally to 274.

All the district administrations have formed rapid response teams to deal with acute encephalitis syndrome and Japanese encephalitis.

The standard operating procedures and guidelines communicated by the National Health Mission, Assam are being followed by all the districts for detection, management, and referral of such cases, an official said.

Kyrgyzstan: Brucellosis

A meeting addressing "the results of the socio-economic development of the 1st half of 2022 for the Osh region and the tasks for the 2nd half of the year" was held.

As informed by Deputy Presidential Envoy Uristem Manapov, 95% of vaccinations and 91% of diagnostics have been completed according to the half-year plan.

"Blood samples were obtained from 1,377 horses, 54,558 cattle, 2,817 sheep and goats, and 95 dogs for brucellosis, which is dangerous for animals and humans. As a result, 235 head of cattle were diagnosed with brucellosis and slaughtered based on veterinary sanitary rules. The cattle were allowed to be slaughtered and then disposed of.

Honduras: Leptospirosis

After 8 days fighting for his life, a Venezuelan who entered the country as part of a migrant caravan died of leptospirosis and cardiorespiratory complications in the internal medicine ward of the Gabriela Alvarado Hospital.

On July 27, a citizen originally from Venezuela died. He had arrived on Honduran soil in the Trojes area, immediately asking for medical assistance. He was admitted to the hospital on July 21, presenting multiple complications.

The deputy director of the care center, Marlon Estrada, reported that "this patient was already admitted with liver and kidney failure, until July 27, he presented cardiorespiratory complications and died."

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

An outbreak of lumpy skin disease [LSD] in Rajasthan has resulted in the death of more than 1,200 bovines, with districts in western Rajasthan being the most affected, said state Animal Husbandry department officials July 30.

Officials said that the disease, which results in rashes on the skin of bovines and is highly contagious, was first noticed in Rajasthan in April but has spread to multiple districts in the past few weeks, affecting 25,000 bovines.

"The outbreak started from Jaisalmer and then spread to Jodhpur, Nagaur, Jalore, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, and Sri Ganganagar. The disease was first noticed sporadically in April, but due to its contagious nature is rapidly spreading. Lumpy skin disease results from a virus. Around 20,000-25,000 bovines have been affected so far, and around 1,200 bovines have died," said Arvind Jaitly, deputy director (Disease Control), Animal Husbandry Department.

Belgium: Avian Influenza

At least 2 foxes have died so far after being infected by the bird flu virus, the Belgian Nature and Forest Agency found after examining 25 fox carcasses. According to the agency, the animals became ill after eating sick or dead birds.

The bird flu virus is still raging on the coast. Further research should now show whether foxes also spread the virus among other mammals.

Anyone who sees sick or dead birds or foxes should report them on the influenza line for dead or sick birds, or contact the Ostend Bird and Wild Animal Rehabilitation Center for dead foxes.

United States: Legionellosis

Napa County Public Health is investigating an outbreak of legionnaires' disease cases in Napa County, Calif. It is aware of 9 confirmed cases of legionnaires' disease, 2 suspected cases, and 1 probable case for a total of 12 cases. All individuals have been hospitalized, and no fatalities have been reported at this time.

The cases were reported to Napa County Public Health. The cases reside in the City of Napa and in Calistoga. Napa County Public Health is working with the California Department of Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Napa County Environmental Health Branch of the Planning Building and Environmental Services Department (PBES-EH) to investigate and mitigate the outbreak.

"This is a continuing investigation," said Dr. Karen Relucio, public health officer and deputy director of health and human services. "As part of the investigation, PBES-EH is conducting environmental investigations to identify possible sources of exposures to the bacteria, conducting environmental sampling for legionella, and recommending environmental remediation strategies to prevent further transmission of legionella."

Croatia: Anthrax

So far, 15 people have been infected with anthrax -- there have been no new cases in the past week. The Veterinary Inspection of the State Inspectorate (DIRH) is participating intensively and carrying out activities on pastures affected by the disease. More than 3,000 animals have been vaccinated.

Although it is common for anthrax to appear after heavy rains, the epidemiologist of the Croatian Institute for Public Health, Vesna Višekruna Vučina, said that anthrax spores can survive in the environment for a very long time. "This is a little unusual today, but the source of the infection is currently being searched for," she said, commenting on the situation in Lonjsko Polje.

In addition to the animals, 15 people who were in contact with them also became infected, all diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax. "It is, in a way, the mildest form of this disease and generally has a favorable course. It is treated with antibiotics," she noted, adding that there are generally no long-term consequences for those infected.

More than 3,000 animals were vaccinated. There have been no new livestock diagnoses since July 21, so it is hoped that the adopted measures are effective, which raises optimism. "The situation is under control, vaccination is coming to an end and we should be optimistic," Tatjana Karačić, director of the Directorate for Veterinary Medicine and Food Safety from the Ministry of Agriculture, said.

Brazil: Yellow Fever

A positive case of yellow fever has been recorded in Pará de Minas. The municipal government informed TV Integração that the patient is a 67 year old man whose work involves traveling. The State Department of Health (SES-MG) said that it awaits notification from the Municipality about the case.

The suspicion is that the man contracted the disease on one of his work trips. The patient is doing well, and all necessary protocols have been adopted. The disease would have been diagnosed in June, when he underwent tests in a private laboratory in Belo Horizonte.

The Health Department of Para de Minas says that it has intensified actions to prevent the disease, as well as vaccinating the population.

United States: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A deadly rabbit disease has been detected in Minnesota. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health says 4 of a Hennepin County family's pet rabbits died, and tests confirmed the presence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 [RHDV2] in one of the carcasses. A news release says the remains were submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in late July because the positive rabbit was lethargic, quiet, and limp before it died.

The Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory spotted signs of the disease in the remains and sent samples to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, which confirmed RHDV2 was present. The Board of Animal Health says the deadly illness is highly contagious among both domestic and wild rabbits, but there is no risk to humans.

"There is a vaccine available for RHDV2, and we encourage rabbit owners to talk to their veterinarian about getting pets vaccinated," said senior veterinarian Dr. Veronica Bartsch. "Whether your rabbits are vaccinated or not, you should always call your veterinarian right away if you notice any signs of illness."

Georgia: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax has been identified in a village in the Kvemo Kartli region in eastern Georgia, the National Food Agency reports. The department received information about the death of 2 head of cattle in the village of Zemo Karabulakh, Dmanisi municipality. Agency veterinarians immediately went to the site, took pathological material, and examined it in the laboratory. "As a result of laboratory tests, the anthrax disease was confirmed," the ministry said in a statement.

The dead cattle were burned and buried, disinfection work was carried out, and preventive vaccination of animals is being carried out along the surrounding perimeter. Also, in agreement with the local government, a quarantine was announced on the territory of Zemo Karabulakh, which means a ban on the movement of livestock, the sale of animals at fairs, and the consumption and sale of livestock products in the quarantine zone.

National Food Agency veterinarians annually vaccinate up to a million animals against anthrax. In 2021, the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia reported that the incidence of anthrax among animals in Georgia was 90% lower than in 2013.

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis

Tulare County, Calif., Public Health has confirmed a human case of St Louis encephalitis virus. Officials say it's similar to West Nile, and both are transmitted by the same type of mosquitoes. There are 5 other cases under investigation as potential encephalitis or West Nile virus infections.

Health officials say people infected with St Louis encephalitis may show flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or headache, or no symptoms at all. Severe cases can affect the central nervous system.

Officials want to remind you to drain standing water that could attract breeding mosquitoes. Use insect repellent and wear long sleeves and pants to avoid getting bitten.

Switzerland: Diphtheria

Up to 8 people living in a center in the capital, Bern, contracted diphtheria, but had no difficulties breathing, a spokesman for the state secretariat for Migration said on Aug. 2. The infected group of people were put in isolation, and more than 170 other asylum seekers, notably unaccompanied minors, are in quarantine at the center. The former hospital houses up to 350 people during the first phase of their asylum procedure.

Diphtheria rarely occurs in western Europe, where children for decades have been vaccinated against the highly contagious infection of the nose and throat. However, diphtheria is still common in developing countries, according to experts. The last known case of the infectious disease in Switzerland was recorded in 1983, the Federal Office of Public Health writes.

July 28, 2022

India: Japanese Encephalitis

In Assam on July 20, 3 more people died of Japanese encephalitis (JE), pushing the death toll to 35, an official report said. As many as 24 fresh cases of the mosquito-borne disease were detected in the state during the day, the National Health Mission, Assam, said in a statement.

Among the new cases, 4 each were reported from Nagaon and Biswanath, while Jorhat reported 3 cases. The total number of JE infections in the state has increased to 226, it said. Two deaths and 19 JE infections were reported in the state.

All the districts have formed a district rapid response team on acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE.

Standard operating procedures and guidelines have been communicated by the National Health Mission to all the districts for AES/JE case detection, management, and referral. The state annually records a surge in JE cases during this period.

Philippines: Newcastle Disease

Agriculture officials have confirmed that Newcastle disease, not avian influenza, has killed thousands of chickens and ducks here. Dr. Bryan Sibayan, Department of Agriculture-Cagayan Valley regional livestock focal person, said that the Integrated Laboratory Division has confirmed chickens and ducks died of Newcastle disease. "Newcastle disease is a contagious and often fatal disease affecting bird species and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 of the family avulavirus," Sibayan said.

Due to the situation, DA-Cagayan Valley regional director Narciso Edillo urged local government officials in cities and towns "to be proactive against bird flu and should be in close contact" with their agency. "We are here to help our local government units through our Regulatory and Integrated Laboratory Division. Together, we can contain the strains through our high-end laboratory facilities. The earlier these cases are reported, the better," he said.

Two areas -- Marabulig village in Cauayan City and Alicia town -- were earlier reported to have been afflicted with bird flu in Isabela last month, but these were already declared "safe zones" now, he added. He clarified those afflicted with bird flu earlier are already safe zones, and encouraged everyone to report the presence of any virus strain that poses danger to poultry.

India: African Swine Fever

African swine fever has been reported from 2 farms at Mananthavady in Kerala's Wayanad district, officials said July 22. The disease was confirmed after the samples were tested at the National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases in Bhopal.

An official from the animal husbandry department told news agency Press Trust of India that the samples were sent for testing after pigs at one of the farms died en masse. "Now the test result has confirmed the infection. Directions have been issued to cull 300 pigs of the second farm," the official said.

The department said steps are being taken to prevent the disease from being spread.

India: Kyasanur Forest Disease

This year, Maharashtra has reported 9 cases of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, in the Sindhudurg district. According to the state government's public health department, the KFD cases in Maharashtra have been reported mainly in the Sahyadri range.

According to the state entomologist, the cases are detected in the Western Ghat mainly due to the greater number of monkey population in that region. KFD is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted to human beings through the bite of infected ticks.

State entomologist Mahendra Jagtap said, "Shivamogga district in Karnataka is the hotspot of Kyasanur Forest Disease (monkey fever) due to cases being highly found in the Sahyadri range.” The state official also said that KFD, which is known as monkey fever, and monkeypox are 2 different diseases, and citizens should not get confused and panic.

China: Plague

This week, a Chinese man has been confirmed with the historic black death disease. According to Jimu News, on July 19, a case of black death, or bubonic plague, was confirmed in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. His family was taken to isolation and inspection overnight. The patient's community was briefly shut down on the evening of the following day. But restrictions were lifted on July 21 after sterilization was conducted.

The patient, a 45 year old herdsman living in Shanghai Temple Ranch, Inner Mongolia, started to experience fever, fatigue, unconsciousness, and diarrhea on July 12. He was admitted to a local hospital the next day and transferred to another on July 14.

According to China News Network, plus the one case detected so far in 2022, there have been 11 confirmed instances of plague over the past 4 years. The clinical manifestations of plague infection are high fever, swollen and painful lymph nodes, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, bleeding, and other symptoms of severe toxemia.

Kenya: Yellow Fever

The Government has launched a 10-day mass vaccination campaign against yellow fever disease in Isiolo County as well as parts of the neighboring Garissa County.

This follows an outbreak of the disease in parts of Isiolo in March this year, with 71 reported cases and 7 fatalities so far.

Speaking in Isiolo town July 23, Acting Director General for Health Dr. Patrick Amoth said that the mass vaccination drive will target all people aged 9 months to 60 years, even as he called on residents in the targeted areas to take advantage of the free vaccination campaign and get immunized.

He said that all the 3 sub counties of Isiolo have reported yellow fever cases, with Merti and Garbatulla being most affected.

Dr. Amoth assured members of the public of the safety of the yellow fever jab, asking them to dispel any rumors to the effect that the vaccine could harm them in any way.

United States: Avian Influenza

A pair of sick swans at Boston's Charles River Esplanade were euthanized, and 5 baby swans were later taken to a wildlife center to be evaluated, according to the city. The sick swans had avian flu, the city said, which has been blamed for other bird kills around the country this year.

The Charles River Esplanade cases were reported by multiple people to Boston's Animal Care & Control Division, which investigated and was able to capture the birds with help from the Boston Fire Department, a city representative said.

The birds were "quite ill," the representative said in a statement, and were euthanized.

A new strain of bird flu has been alarming animal experts nationwide, killing wild birds, including bald eagles, and resulting in the culling of tens of millions of farm-raised chickens and turkeys since February.

Canada: Anthrax

Parks Canada says 47 bison carcasses have so far been counted as an outbreak of anthrax continues inside Wood Buffalo National Park.

Bison are susceptible to anthrax, and past Northwest Territories [NWT] outbreaks have resulted in the deaths of hundreds of animals. Ordinarily, Parks Canada said, the Wood Buffalo herd numbers around 5,000 animals.

Not all carcasses observed may necessarily be part of the outbreak. Parks Canada says 2 field-tested cases have been identified to date, and none have been confirmed in a laboratory. "We're certainly keeping an eye on what's happening," said Jean Morin, the park's acting superintendent, on July 22, adding that the number of deceased bison did not yet appear to be having a significant impact on the herd as a whole. "As soon as the weather cools off a little bit, usually the outbreak stops," he said. "I don't expect we'll reach a number that would be significant enough that it would have an impact."

The outbreak was first reported earlier this week.

Anthrax outbreaks don't happen every summer but are triggered, Morin said, by conditions similar to those experienced over the past couple of years: fluctuations in the water table followed by heat. The park, he said, has an outbreak of note every 5-10 years.

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

The Lumpy Skin Disease [LSD], a viral infection afflicting cattle and water buffaloes has spread to 14 out of the 33 districts of Gujarat and has claimed around 1,000 livestock head in the state, Agriculture Minister Raghavji Patel said July 24.

Quoting Patel, an official release said that the LSD, caused by a virus of the capripox genus, has spread to 4 out of 5 regions of Gujarat.

The release said that cases of the infectious disease have been reported from 880 villages and that 37 121 infected cattle and buffaloes have been given veterinary treatment.

The disease has spread to 14 districts of Kutch, Saurashtra, north Gujarat and south Gujarat regions, leaving only the central Gujarat region unaffected. The minister said that the disease had claimed 999 cattle and buffaloes as of July 24.

The release said the disease, which spreads through vectors like houseflies, mosquitos, ticks etc. has spread into Kutch district and all 11 districts in Saurashtra -- Jamnagar, Devbhumi Dwarka, Rajkot, Porbandar, Morbi, Surendranagar, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Gir Somnath and Botad. Cases of the viral disease have also come to light from Banaskantha in the north Gujarat region and Surat in south Gujarat, the release further said.

Spain: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

A middle-aged man has been admitted to a hospital in Spain's Castile and Leon region [see description below] after being diagnosed with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), authorities said July 21.

The disease, which has a fatality rate between 10% and 40% according to the World Health Organization (WHO), was first detected in Crimea in 1944.

It is often found in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Asia and more rarely elsewhere in Europe. It can transmit between humans by close contact with blood or bodily fluids, the WHO says.

In the latest Spanish case, the man was first admitted to a local hospital in the northwestern city of Leon when he showed symptoms of the disease after being bitten by a tick and was later transferred to another hospital on a military plane on Thursday, the Defense Ministry said.

"He has a tick bite and remains in a stable condition, despite the clinical severity that this pathology implies," local health authorities said in a statement.

Ghana: Marburg Virus

The Ghana Health Service (GHS) has said one close contact in the new Marburg virus disease cases in Ghana reported symptoms after the maximum incubation period, the person tested positive together with his close contact but died July 21.

Currently, 40 additional contacts have been identified in the Savannah Region and are being followed up.

Of the 40 contacts, 11 are healthcare workers (HCW), and daily monitoring of temperature and general health and wellbeing are being undertaken by healthcare staff in the affected district.

The Director-General of the GHS, Dr. Patrick Kuma-Aboagye made this known at a press briefing in Accra July 24.

Ukraine: Leptospirosis

A teenager who fell ill with leptospirosis after swimming in one of the ponds of the Korsun-Shevchenkivsky district near Cherkasy, died in Okhmatdyt Hospital, in Kyiv. He showed the 1st signs of illness less than 2 weeks after swimming in the pond. The teenager was in a serious condition, the disease led to serious complications, and the doctors could no longer save the boy.

On July 11, the boy's parents went to a private clinic, where he received outpatient treatment. The parents treated their son at home.

When the schoolboy became worse 4 days later, the parents went to outpatient clinic No. 2 in Brovary, and the teenager was transferred to the infectious diseases department of the children's hospital.

The boy's legs began to fail, and the patient was urgently transported to the specialized children's hospital "Okhmatdyt " in Kyiv. Unfortunately, it was not possible to save him and on July 17, he died.

England: Avian Influenza

Thousands of seabirds have died in an outbreak of avian flu on the Farne Islands [Northumberland, England] in the worst "disaster" to hit the colonies in nearly 100 years.

The National Trust, which cares for the islands, has found more than 3,000 dead birds but estimated 10 times more may have fallen into the sea.

The islands off the Northumberland coast are home to about 200,000 birds.

The Farnes are an internationally important habitat for 23 species including puffins, Arctic terns, guillemots, razorbills, sandwich terns, and common terns.

They were closed to the public earlier this month to try to prevent the spread of bird flu.

United States: Anthrax

A confirmed case of anthrax was detected in a beef cattle herd in Sedgwick County after the producer had 7 acute deaths in the herd, according to the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA). The CSU [Colorado State University] Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory confirmed the case last week. A 2nd positive case was confirmed positive in a nearby beef herd July 26, the CDA said in a press release.

Both herds have been quarantined and are being monitored. The cattle are being treated with antibiotics and vaccinated against anthrax. The CDA and USDA are also working with county officials to ensure the infected carcasses are properly disposed of.

"Livestock producers in northeast Colorado should monitor their herds for unexplained deaths and work with their veterinarian to ensure appropriate samples are collected and submitted to a diagnostic lab for testing," said Colorado State Veterinarian Dr. Maggie Baldwin. "Producers and veterinarians should refrain from performing field necropsies on suspected anthrax cases, due to the high risk of exposure to anthrax spores and possibility for human infection."

This is the 1st confirmed case of anthrax in Colorado cattle since 2012, when more than 75 head of cattle died in a multi-premises outbreak across northeast Colorado, according to the CDA.

Iceland: Brucellosis

MAST, the food and veterinary authority, is investigating credible evidence of Brucella canis bacterial infection in a dog in Iceland. The bacteria can be passed on to humans, though this is rare. Children, pregnant women, and those with suppressed immune systems are most at risk of illness. It is the 1st time that Brucella canis is suspected in Iceland.

"Yes, it is a strong suspicion, but still a suspicion, and we are sending a sample overseas for confirmation, or hopefully not confirmation. But that can take up to 2 weeks," says MAST veterinary specialist Vigdís Tryggvadóttir.

Brucella canis is a zoonotic disease, which means it can be transmitted between animals and humans, or vice versa. The main symptoms of the disease in dogs are the death of fetuses late in pregnancy, still-born puppies, or sick puppies that die shortly after birth, as well as Epididymitis in males. The main infection route is through mating or very close contact.

 

July 22, 2022

Australia: Hendra Virus

Two people will be treated with antibodies after a horse tested positive for Hendra Virus in north Queensland earlier this month.

Queensland recorded its first case of the virus in 5 years when the positive test came back in Mackay on July 8.

The Mackay Public Health Unit identified 5 people who were in contact with the horse while it was infectious and 2 of those will receive monoclonal antibodies.

One is deemed high-risk and the other is moderate-to-high-risk, according to Mackay Hospital and Health Service.

No one exposed to the horse in Mackay has been hospitalized.

One horse on the property where the positive case was identified has already been euthanized, Biosecurity Queensland said. Chief Veterinary Officer Dr Allison Crook said the horse had not been vaccinated against the virus.

"Hendra virus infection can occur throughout the year, so it's important horse owners take steps to protect themselves and their animals at all times," she said.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

In Assam, 3 more persons lost their lives due to Japanese encephalitis [JE], taking the toll to 19 in the state, an official release said July 14.

The National Health Mission, Assam said one person each died of the infection in Darrang, Sonitpur, and Udalguri in the last 24 hours.

Besides, 23 fresh cases of Japanese encephalitis were detected in Golaghat, Jorhat, Majuli, Kamrup Metropolitan, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Lakhimpur, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Udalguri, the statement said.

Altogether 144 cases of JE have been reported in the northeastern state since July 1, it said.

Japanese encephalitis is spread by mosquitoes.

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

Stanislaus County, Ca., public health officials confirmed a case of St Louis encephalitis July 13.

The viral disease spread by mosquitoes is less common than West Nile virus, an endemic illness that generates attention every year in the Central Valley.

According to a county news release, an adult male suffering from neurologic illness tested positive for the St Louis encephalitis virus. It's the county's 1st case of the viral disease this year.

Officials did not know where the man contracted the illness. As of last week, neither St Louis nor West Nile viruses had been detected in the environment in Stanislaus County by mosquito abatement districts. The related viruses haven't been found in mosquito samples or dead birds, and no infections in horses.

"We are not aware whether the individual traveled out of county or not," a county spokesperson said by email.

A county health official reminded the public to protect themselves against mosquito bites, which can spread the 2 viruses.

Russia: Q Fever

At least 19 people have tested positive for Q fever this year in Rostov Oblast, a Russian region that borders Ukraine, according to state-affiliated media. While the farm-animal-borne infection can often be harmless to humans, it can cause serious problems for a significant portion of people.

"This year, 19 laboratory-confirmed cases of coxiellosis [Q fever] have been registered in the Salsky and Remontnensky districts of the Rostov region... The last time this disease was recorded in the region was in 2001-2002," Svetlana Nenadskaya, head of the epidemiological surveillance department of the regional Rospotrebnadzor, told RIA Novosti.

Q fever is a bacterial infection caught from infected farm animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats. It's often picked up by humans by contact with infected animal blood, poop, urine, and fur. As such, it's most often seen in people who work with animals, like farmers and vets. People with weakened immune systems are also at a heightened risk.

People can fall sick with Q fever by consuming unpasteurized milk and other dairy products. It's also a bacterium that is considered a potential agent for a bioterrorism attack.

Pakistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

The Ministry of National Food Security and Research has decided to import the vaccine for lumpy skin disease [LSD] as the so-called virus has killed more than 100,000 animals, triggering fears of milk and meat scarcity.

According to sources in the ministry, it has been decided to seek the vaccine for the disease as soon as possible, and for the purpose, the Animal Husbandry Commission -- a department of the ministry -- has started working with the agencies concerned.

They said that a summary for the import/purchase of the vaccine has been prepared and will be sent to the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of the Cabinet for its approval.

There is also a risk of milk and meat scarcity in the country due to the deaths of the animals. "If timely treatment is administered, the death rate could be less than 1%."

All Pakistan Farmers Foundation Chairman Syed Mehmood Bukhari told The Express Tribune that farmers had lost tens of millions of rupees due to the deaths of animals.

Croatia: Anthrax

Anthrax has been confirmed in dozens of cattle found dead in a nature park southeast of the Croatian capital of Zagreb, authorities said July 16.

Authorities conducted tests on the animal carcasses after reports that the cattle had developed neurological symptoms, the Ministry of Agriculture said. It said all measures were being taken to contain the outbreak in Lonjsko Polje, a flood plain by the Sava River known for its unique environment.

The state HRT television reported that 4 people also have been hospitalized with skin infections. The report said 107 cattle have died in the past 2 weeks.

"We can say that the case is under complete control and there is no room for panic," said local public health official Inoslav Brkić.

Spores of anthrax can lie dormant in the ground until they are ingested by animals or activated when the soil is disturbed by heavy rain, flooding, or drought. Outbreaks can kill a large number of animals in a short time. Infected livestock often are found dead with no illness detected.

Czech Republic: Lyme Disease

Tick season crawls onto the calendar from early spring to autumn. If you live in the Czech Republic, this is important information to know as about one out of every 10 ticks is infected with some type of the 2 commonest transmittable illnesses: Lyme disease and tickborne encephalitis [TBE].

Prevention -- wearing long sleeves and protective clothing or using tick repellant when outdoors -- and proper tick removal are important safeguards, but vaccination is becoming an increasingly common way of preventing tickborne encephalitis (a vaccine for Lyme disease is currently in development in the United States but isn't yet approved).

The tickborne encephalitis vaccine is usually administered during the winter months only; however, it can be administered year-round (although winter is recommended). Canadian Medical is now implementing a fast-track vaccination program over the summertime months. In the fast-track program, the 2nd dose is administered just 14 days after the 1st vaccine. The 3rd and final dose is given after 5-12 months.

The fast-track tick vaccine can be administered from 6 years of age but strictly upon your pediatrician's approval. Patients seeking the vaccine should only get a jab at a time when they are healthy and haven't taken antibiotics in the previous 2 weeks. Setting aside a recovery time of 48 hours after the vaccine is necessary, and a top-up vaccine is recommended after 3 years, and every 5 years after that.

India: Typhoid Fever

With the arrival of the monsoon, typhoid cases have spiked in Telangana, and health officials are blaming the beloved street food 'pani puri' for the rise in the number of reported cases. During May 2022, 2,700 cases were typhoid cases reported in Telangana and this number stood at 2,752 cases during June 2022. Dr. G Srinivasa Rao, director of public health, has referred to typhoid as "pani puri disease". The government is advising people to avoid street food, especially pani puri, during monsoon. Dr Rao also said that vendors should ensure hygiene and use only safe drinking water.

Contaminated water, food, and mosquitoes are the main causes of seasonal monsoon-related diseases such as malaria, acute diarrheal diseases (ADDs), and viral fevers reported in the past few weeks. Telangana has registered more than 6,000 cases of diarrheal disease and is also seeing an upward trend in dengue cases.

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by the Salmonella Typhi bacterium, from defiled food or water. At an early stage, typhoid symptoms include prolonged high fever, severe pain in the stomach, headache, diarrhea or constipation, and reduced appetite.

If not treated immediately, the symptoms can worsen and lead to fatigue, pale skin, vomiting blood, and even internal bleeding.

Ghana: Marburg Virus

Ghana has announced the country's first outbreak of Marburg virus disease after a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating centre laboratory confirmed earlier results.

The Institut Pasteur in Dakar, Senegal, received samples from each of the 2 patients from the southern Ashanti region of Ghana -- both deceased and unrelated -- who showed symptoms including diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The laboratory corroborated the results from the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, which suggested their illness was due to the Marburg virus. One case was a 26 year old man who checked into a hospital on June 26 and died on June 27. The 2nd case was a 51 year old man who reported to the hospital on June 28 and died on the same day. Both cases sought treatment at the same hospital within days of each other.

WHO has been supporting a joint national investigative team in the Ashanti region as well as Ghana's health authorities by deploying experts; making available personal protective equipment; bolstering disease surveillance, testing, tracing contacts, and working with communities to alert and educate them about the risks and dangers of the disease; and to collaborate with the emergency response teams. In addition, a team of WHO experts will be deployed over the next couple of days to provide coordination, risk assessment, and infection-prevention measures.

"Health authorities have responded swiftly, getting a head start preparing for a possible outbreak. This is good because without immediate and decisive action, Marburg can easily get out of hand. WHO is on the ground supporting health authorities, and now that the outbreak is declared, we are marshalling more resources for the response," said Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, WHO regional director for Africa.

Tanzania: Leptospirosis

Tanzania has confirmed 20 cases of leptospirosis, a bacterial infection that has claimed 3 lives, in the southern region of Lindi. Health minister Ummy Mwalimu said test results from samples of patients in Ruangwa were positive for the disease.

Last week, samples of people presenting with fever, nosebleeds, headache, and body fatigue tested negative for COVID-19, Ebola, and Marburg, the ministry said, calling for calm as it worked to detect it. "I would like to inform the public that sample testing from patients has confirmed the outbreak is leptospirosis field fever or 'homa ya Mgunda' as it is known in Swahili," said Ms. Mwalimu.

According to the ministry, more than 20 cases have been reported, with 3 deaths. 2 patients are currently hospitalized. Ms. Mwalimu said contact tracing was ongoing. "Up to now, no other person among contacts has shown any symptoms of the disease," she added.

According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria are transmitted from animals to humans through cuts or abrasions in the skin, nose, or eyes that come in contact with water or soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals. But, the disease cannot be transmitted from one human to another. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases.

The commonest symptoms are fever, headache, chills, cough, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, rash, red and irritated eyes, and jaundice.

India: African Swine Fever

African swine fever (ASF) has been detected as the reason behind the death of over 100 pigs in the Faizullahganj area of Lucknow. Confirming this, animal husbandry department chief veterinary officer Dr. Devesh Sharma said the post-mortem and viscera test reports have revealed the cause of death, and that ASF was not transferable from animals to humans.

Dr. Sharma said, "The reports confirm the presence of African swine fever (ASF) virus in the dead pigs. ASF is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs but does not infect or spread in humans.

Sharma added that ASF affects both domestic and feral swine of all ages.

"The only way to deal with ASF was to cull all the pigs within the 1 km area. In Lucknow's case, we can't comment on what the authorities would decide, but it's a big relief that ASF cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans," the doctor added.

China: Plague

The northwestern Chinese region of Ningxia reported a human infection with plague, state television said late on July 19. The caseload of human plague infection, a highly infectious and severe disease, is low in China, with just one in 2021 and no deaths, down from 4 infections and 3 deaths in 2020, according to data from the National Health Commission, which does not specify the types of plague for each person.

The infected person had arrived in Ningxia from an outside area, state television said. It did not provide further details. The latest case was bubonic plague, state television said. Bubonic plague is the commonest form of human plague and less severe than the pneumonia type, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early, the World Health Organization said.

Canada: Anthrax

Parks Canada says a possible anthrax outbreak among bison is being investigated in what it called a "remote backcountry area" of Wood Buffalo National Park.

In a statement this week, the federal agency said the suspected outbreak was in a southern area of the park away from visitor facilities and roads that cross the park. "Late last week, staff received mortality signals from several collared bison in the southern area of the park," Parks Canada stated. "Three bison were observed deceased in the Sweetgrass area and 2 were field tested for anthrax. The samples are being sent to a lab to confirm the results."

Since then, Parks Canada added, "More bison have been found deceased and anthrax is suspected."

Carcasses have been found at Lake One and the Trident Creek or Trident Meadows area. "So far, the deceased bison have been located in remote locations of the park and we don't foresee any threat to the public," Parks Canada stated. An area closure is in place for Sweetgrass, Trident Creek and Trident Meadows.

July 14, 2022

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Bali's Agricultural and Food Security Agency announced that it had eliminated 55 out of 63 cows on the island that have tested positive for the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). "In total there are 63 cases, 55 eliminated, leaving 8 cows," the agency's chief I Wayan Sunada said over the weekend.

Wayan explained that 38 of the diseased cows were found in Medahan Village, Gianyar, and all of the cattle had been slaughtered. The 8 remaining diseased cows, located in Karangasem and Buleleng, are set for slaughter. The official said culling is the best measure to stop the spread of the disease to other cows, with quarantine and treatment unlikely to be sufficient to contain the highly transmissible virus.

The FMD outbreak in Indonesia began in May -- decades after the eradication of the disease in 1986.

Bali authorities are currently investigating the cause behind the FMD outbreak reaching the island. The island's provincial government has placed a current ban on any cattle to be transferred to other regions in Indonesia, as well as preparing vaccines.

Ghana: Marburg Virus Disease

The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the country of Ghana reported the preliminary finding of 2 cases of Marburg virus disease and if confirmed these would [be] the 1st such infections recorded in the country.

Preliminary analysis of samples taken from 2 patients by the country's Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research indicated the cases were positive for Marburg. However, per the standard procedure, the samples have been sent to the Institut Pasteur in Senegal, a WHO collaborating centre, for confirmation. The 2 patients from the southern Ashanti region -- both deceased and unrelated -- showed symptoms including diarrhea, fever, nausea and vomiting. They had been taken to a district hospital in Ashanti region.

Preparations for a possible outbreak response are being set up swiftly as further investigations are underway.

If confirmed, the cases in Ghana would mark the 2nd time Marburg has been detected in West Africa. Guinea confirmed a single case in an outbreak that was declared over on 16 Sep 2021, 5 weeks after the initial case was detected.

India: Japanese Encephalitis

At least 8 people have died of and 82 infected with Japanese Encephalitis [JE] in flood-hit Assam in the past 9 days. This has prompted the health department to ask district authorities to constitute District Rapid Response Teams (DRRT) and to keep a close watch on the situation.

Japanese Encephalitis and Malaria kill many people in Assam every year, specifically during the monsoon flood season which usually starts in May and stretches to October.

According to the National Health Mission (NHM), since July 1, at least 8 people have died and 82 people have fallen ill after being infected by the vector-borne disease.

Assam Health Department's Principal Secretary Avinash Joshi and NHM Director Dr MS Lakshmi Priya on Saturday [9 Jul 2022] conducted a meeting through video conferencing with district authorities and asked them to constitute DRRTs to deal with the situation.

Australia: Hendra Virus

Queensland has recorded its 1st case of Hendra virus since 2017 after a horse tested positive in Mackay.

Biosecurity Queensland said the result was confirmed July 8 and the horse was euthanized after its condition deteriorated rapidly.

It isolated the property as staff worked to identify the source of the virus and ensure humans had not been exposed.

"Tracing and risk assessments have been undertaken on other animals on the property," Biosecurity Queensland's chief veterinary officer, Allison Crook, said.

"We are working with the property and horse owners to ensure the risk is contained on the property."

The horse having tested positive had not been vaccinated against Hendra.

Israel: Leptospirosis

Two people were diagnosed with a bacterial disease named leptospirosis July 8 after visiting rivers in the north, the Health Ministry reported. Three people have died this year from leptospirosis that they caught in water sources in the north.

Earlier this week, the Health Ministry and the Environmental Protection Ministry warned the public that water sample testing from some of the rivers in the north had turned up concerning results and that entering those waters could be dangerous.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

In a follow-up on the anthrax outbreak in Sierra Leone, as of June 17, a total of 6 anthrax cases were reported including 5 confirmed cases and one probable case. The majority of them are among the age group of 15 years and above (43%) followed by 12-59 months (29%), 0-11 months (14%), and 5-15 years (14%).

The Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone has declared an outbreak of human anthrax in the country after identifying 3 lab-confirmed cutaneous anthrax cases in Karene district. An investigation was conducted as follow-up to reports of sickness and death of animals in the adjacent Port Loko district between March and April [2022], with reported consumption of meat in surrounding communities.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Cutaneous anthrax occurs when the spore (or possibly the bacterium) enters a cut or abrasion on the skin. It starts out as a raised bump that looks like an insect bite. It then develops into a blackened lesion called an eschar that may form a scab. Lymph glands in the area may swell plus edema may be present. This form of anthrax responds well to antibiotics. If untreated, deaths can occur if the infection goes systemic. As many as 95% of cases of anthrax are cutaneous.

Uganda: Anthrax

The government's failure to intervene in the outbreak of anthrax in Bududa district has irked livestock farmers. Bududa district confirmed the outbreak of anthrax in May this year after claiming one person and over 30 head of cattle.

However, more than one month and a half after the outbreak of the disease in the district, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries, and Fisheries has not provided a solution to the livestock farmers. According to the local authorities, they announced a temporary livestock quarantine with the hope that the government would swiftly provide vaccines, in vain.

Dr. Felix Odongo, the Bududa District Production Officer told URN that since the confirmed outbreak of the disease, they have not seen any intervention from the central government. He says that the district has continued to sensitize farmers to privately vaccinate their animals.

Spain: Newcastle Disease

The Junta de Andalucía's [Andalusia's] Ministry of Agriculture, Farming, Fishing and Sustainable Development has announced that 2 more outbreaks of Newcastle disease have been detected on chicken farms in Huércal-Overa, in Almeria province. Both farms are within a 3 km radius of the one where the 1st outbreak was found on June 29. One has approximately 9,980 chickens, and the other has 26,900.

The 1st symptoms were spotted July 4, and several birds died in the following days. Tests have shown that this is a highly contagious strain of the disease.

All the birds had been brought to the farms for fattening in early May, and since then they have only been taken to slaughter. There have been no other movements. An enquiry is being carried out into the possible source of Newcastle disease in these cases. Studies are being carried out into the people and vehicles who have gone on to the farm in recent weeks to see how far the contamination may have spread.

All the chickens on the farms are being destroyed at an authorized plant, together with their food and other materials which could propagate the virus. Restriction zones have also been set up around the affected farms.

Pakistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

In the crowded livestock markets set up ahead of Pakistan's Eid Al Adha festivities, shoppers this week scrutinized cows more closely than normal, looking for the ugly tell-tale signs of a devastating infection.

An outbreak of the pox-like lumpy skin disease is sweeping the nation's herds, killing or emaciating cattle and threatening ruin to farmers.

Hundreds of cattle have been killed and thousands infected, as livestock owners race to vaccinate animals before the virus spreads further.

The disease cannot spread to humans, and doctors say the meat of infected animals can still be eaten if properly cooked, but its emergence has spread alarm among buyers and sellers.

Prices of animals with proof of vaccination have risen, but many worried shoppers have switched to buying goats or sheep to celebrate the feast of sacrifice. The prices of these smaller animals have also increased.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

In the Kara-Buura district of the Talas region, 4 people showed symptoms of anthrax. Elina Kachybekova, chief physician of the regional department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision, confirmed the information to Azattyk.

According to her, they are all in the hospital and their condition is satisfactory.

"In the village of Kok-Sai, a supposedly sick cow was slaughtered, the meat was divided among about 10 families. Four people had ulcers on their hands and were taken to the district hospital. But the tests are clean, it turned out that they had previously taken antibiotics. In 3 days, they will be tested again," Kachybekova said.

She added that 53 people who had contact with the hospitalized were taken under observation. Veterinarians collected the remaining meat and burned it.

July 7, 2022

Spain: Anthrax

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA) has reported the detection of the 1st outbreak of anthrax in Extremadura in 2022.

On June 13, the suspicion of deaths of animals with symptoms compatible with anthrax was activated again, in a sheep farm, in the municipality of Navalvillar de Pela, in the veterinary region of Don Benito. The National Reference Laboratory of Santa Fe, Granada, confirmed the disease on June 22.

The farm has a census of adult animals of 447 sheep and 6 goats. Goats, which live with sheep, have not shown symptoms of anthrax. To date, a total of 12 sheep have died, which have been eliminated by deep burial with quicklime on the same farm.

There is no record of people who are affected by this disease. The farm is located in the area affected by anthrax in the fall of 2021 and did not carry out at the time the vaccination of its personnel that the official veterinary services recommended in the area.

From the date of the suspicion, sanitary measures were adopted to restrict movement, follow-up of new suspected cases, control of the disposal of carcasses and vaccination.

Germany: African Swine Fever

At first it was just a suspicion. On July 2 the bitter truth: African swine fever [ASF] has reached Lower Saxony. The Friedrich-Löffler-Institut (FLI) confirmed this, Lower Saxony's Agriculture Minister Barbara Otte-Kinast announced the news at a press conference in Hanover.

A sow farm in the municipality of Emsbüren in southern Emsland with 280 sows and 1,500 piglet rearing places is affected. After the farmer found clinical signs -- fever, lack of appetite -- in his sows and consulted his farm veterinarian, samples were sent to the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (LAVES) for examination.

The culling of the affected population took place July 3. It is being examined whether another contact farm in the Freren area needs to be culled. The farm had received piglets from the sow farmer in the past few days.

The cause of the entry is currently unclear. "So far there has been no lead," emphasized the minister. The establishment of a 10-km surveillance zone that extends into the neighboring district of Bentheim is currently being prepared. The surveillance zone will also extend to the state border of North Rhine-Westphalia.

There are 296 farms with 195,000 pigs in the exclusion zone. These are now being clinically examined with the support of LAVES employees. Blood samples are taken from suspected animals and examined for antibodies. The movement of pigs, pig products and manure into the
surveillance zone is prohibited until further notice. The grain harvest that is currently starting is still allowed, as it is not an outbreak in wild boar.

Canada: Equine Infectious Anemia

On May 25 the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance System reported 1 horse tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA) in Lesser Slave River No. 124, Alberta, as confirmed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) national reference laboratory. The horse was tested at the owner's request after having potential exposure to EIA and displaying clinical signs of the disease. The horse had recently been involved in pony chuckwagon activities.

An official quarantine has been placed on the infected horse and other equids on the property. The CFIA has recommended follow-up testing and euthanasia of positive cases and will monitor the situation to determine when the quarantine can be lifted. Biosecurity measures are strongly recommended, and the CFIA might take additional action at other properties where horses might have been exposed during pony chuckwagon activities.

China: Avian Influenza

The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is closely monitoring a human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in the Mainland, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The case involves a 58-year-old male living in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, who had exposure to poultry from the market. He was admitted for treatment on June 5. He is in critical condition.

From 2014 to date, 79 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported by Mainland health authorities.

"All novel influenza A infections, including H5N6, are notifiable infectious diseases in Hong Kong," a spokesman for the CHP said.

Travellers to the Mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets or farms. They should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry, and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry.

Australia: Diphtheria

The North Coast Public Health Unit in northern New South Wales (NSW) has reported 2 cases of the vaccine-preventable disease diphtheria in 2 children.

The 1st case is in a 2-year-old unvaccinated child who is currently being cared for in an intensive care unit (ICU) at a Queensland hospital and has received diphtheria antitoxin, antibiotics, and respiratory support.

The 2nd case is in a 6-year-old child who is a close family contact of the 1st case. The child, who was not vaccinated against diphtheria, is currently being cared for at a Northern NSW Local Health District hospital.

These are the 1st cases of diphtheria of the throat in NSW since the 1990s.

The children's close contacts have received post-exposure prophylaxis, which can include antibiotics and immunization, to reduce the risk of transmission.

Dr. Paul Douglas, Director North Coast Public Health, said the risk to the broader community is low. "However, this is a very serious disease and can be fatal, so families should be alert and review the immunization status of their children on the Australian Immunization Register or with their medical provider to ensure they are update with all vaccinations," Dr Douglas said.

New Zealand: Leptospirosis

There were 12 cases of leptospirosis (9 confirmed and 3 under investigation) notified in May, compared with 7 cases for the same month in 2021. The 9 confirmed cases ranged in age from 25 to 70 years, 8 were male and 1 was female.

Seven confirmed cases reported exposure to animals (4 due to the nature of their occupation as farmers) and 4 had contact with rural streams, rivers, or lakes. Hospitalization [status] was recorded for 7 of the confirmed cases, of which 6 (85.7%) were hospitalized.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal infection that is distributed worldwide. Although more common in tropical areas of the world, leptospirosis is also found in temperate areas. Leptospirosis is transmitted to humans by direct contact of abraded skin or mucous membranes with the urine of infected animals or by contact with wet soil, vegetation, or fresh (not salty) water that has been contaminated with infected animal urine.

Many species of wild and domestic animals (including rodents, dogs, cattle, swine, and perhaps river otters) are susceptible to chronic urinary infection with Leptospira. In carrier animals with chronic renal infections, leptospiruria persists for long periods or for life, and Leptospira bacteria shed in urine may survive in fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months.

Australia: Leptospirosis

A dog has died from leptospirosis in Canberra, the 1st confirmed case in the capital region.

The deadly bacterial infection spreads via contaminated water, affecting a dog's kidneys and liver, often leaving them too unwell to be treated.

On June 28, after being unwell for several days, a Jerrabomberra dog was referred to the Animal Referral Hospital in Pialligo, where her blood test was positive for leptospirosis. She was later euthanized.

Chad: Yellow Fever

A yellow fever vaccination response campaign was officially launched July 7 in Laï. It was during a ceremony chaired by the secretary general of the department of Tandjilé Est, Abdelaziz Tchanlan Tokama, representing the prefect.

Following the 25 confirmed cases of yellow fever in the province of Tandjilé, more precisely in the health districts of Laï and Deressia, this vaccination campaign has been launched.

In his speech for the occasion, the interim provincial delegate of Public Health and National Solidarity of Tandjilé, Dr. Adjibera Jean Baptiste, indicated that this very effective vaccine is safe to fight against yellow fever in the province of Tandjilé, leaving Chad as a whole free from yellow fever, for at least 10 years [The WHO indicates that the vaccine is effective for life].

June 23, 2022

England: Leptospirosis

Two cases of an infection, which can be caught from rats' pee in waterways [rivers or canals], have been confirmed in the South West of England. The UK Health Security Agency has revealed the cases in its quarterly report on animal-associated infections.

Two of the total of 4 confirmed cases of leptospirosis in England in the first 3 months of this year were in the South West, with one in London and one in the East of the country. The agency's report said all cases were in men aged between 28 and 69.

One was linked to canal water and 2 other patients reported exposure to rats, with one also exposed to farm animals. The agency said there were also 23 probable cases of the disease nationwide in the first quarter of this year.

Leptospirosis is also known as Weil's disease, and the National Health Service says it is rare in the UK. It is spread in the pee of infected animals -- most commonly rats, mice, cows, pigs and dogs.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Besides cattle, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has started to affect buffaloes and goats, too, in Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara [Nusa Tenggara Barat (NB)] ahead of Eid al-Adha, according to the local government.

"Currently, farm animals that have been infected with FMD are cattle, buffaloes, and goats," head of the Central Lombok Agriculture Office Lalu Taufikurahman said on June 17. Based on the latest data from the FMD Task Force, the number of cattle infected with FMD has reached 10,995, he informed. However, around 50%, or 5,442 heads of cattle, have recovered.

Meanwhile, the number of infected buffaloes has reached 112, of which 61 have recovered. As for goats, the number of infected animals has reached 60, and 16 have recovered. Thus, the total number of farm animals infected with FMD [in Central Lombok] has reached 11,167, of which 5,519 have recovered.

The disease has now spread to 102 out of 139 villages in Central Lombok, he noted. As part of anticipatory measures against the disease, the local government has shuttered all animal markets until June 20, according to a letter issued recently. "The animal market is still closed for the time being," Taufikurahman said.

Australia: Leptospirosis

The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) wants all dog owners to be aware of a very serious infection of dogs, leptospirosis, which has been detected across NSW [New South Wales] with diagnoses on the Central Coast, Central and Northern beaches areas of Sydney and more recently NSW South Coast. The AVA is suggesting all resident and visiting dogs in these areas be vaccinated against this frequently fatal disease.

Two dogs living in the St George's Basin area of the NSW South Coast were recently diagnosed with leptospirosis, the first occurrence of this disease on the South Coast. Unfortunately, they were unable to be saved, because despite appropriate treatment, it is often too late to reverse the severe damage the disease causes.

This bacterial disease affects the liver and kidneys, sometimes the respiratory system and brain. Common clinical signs may include vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, jaundice, inappetence, changed frequency of urination and nosebleeds. The bacterium is most commonly spread through contact with soil, water or vegetation which has been contaminated with urine from infected animals, commonly rats and mice. In the recent outbreak, many of the infected dogs have not survived.

"Vaccination offers protection against leptospirosis," said Dr. Zachary Lederhose of the Australian Veterinary Association NSW Division Committee.

Afghanistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

The department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock said they have recently registered 4 cases of lumpy skin disease [in Kandahar]. Lumpy skin disease [LSD] is an infectious disease affecting cattle, and its symptoms include fever, lacrimation, hypersalivation, and characteristic skin eruptions.

"I think the disease is due to trafficking of livestock through illegal paths," said Shah Wali, in charge of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock Affairs of Daman district of Kandahar province.

"The disease came from Pakistan. This is a contagious disease," said Fahim Sapai, a local veterinary doctor.

The provincial department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock said that if the central government doesn't take serious action, the virus will further affect the livestock.

United States: Avian Influenza

The first confirmed case of avian flu in a mammal in Washington state has been detected in a baby raccoon at Sacajawea Historical State Park in Pasco. It is also the first case of avian flu confirmed in a raccoon in North America, according to the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The agency is warning pet owners not to let their dogs and cats scavenge sick or dead birds or other wildlife or even interact with sick wildlife.

Four raccoon kits with apparent avian influenza were found at the park at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers earlier this month, according to Fish and Wildlife. One was tested to confirm the disease. 2 of the kits were dead, and the other 2 were obviously sick and were euthanized.

Avian flu was detected in Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, in the Columbia Basin of Eastern Washington starting in May this year in baby geese. Visitors to the park were finding dead goslings and baby geese were walking in circles, having seizures and sitting still and letting people approach them. There followed reports of more geese with avian flu across the Tri-Cities area; a mallard, a duck, and a crow in Richland; a gull at Sacajawea Park; and a sandhill crane in Connell.

Indonesia: Leptospirosis

Gunungkidul Health Office (Dinkes) in Yogyakarta has noted that in 2022 there have been 22 cases of leptospirosis, of which 4 died. "Until June there have been 22 cases of leptospirosis, 4 of whom died," said the head of the Gunungkidul Health Office, Dewi Irawaty. This is quite high, although 2017 is still the highest with 64 cases with 16 deaths.

"Indeed, now there is an upward trend and the number of cases could still increase," said Dewi
Taiwan: Japanese Encephalitis

According to Taiwan's "China Times News Network," the first local Japanese encephalitis case in Taiwan this year occurred in Tainan. Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control said that the case is of a man in his 50s in Beimen District, Tainan City, who mostly lived at home and farmland on weekdays. He had no history of domestic or overseas travel. He started to have a fever and developed lower limb weakness and changes in consciousness as well as other symptoms and was admitted to hospital. This is the 1st case of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan this year.

According to reports, Taiwan's deputy director of the CDC, Luo Yijun, stated that the man is in his 50s and had a fever and went to the clinic for medical treatment, but the symptoms were not relieved after using antipyretics. He was admitted to the emergency room and tested negative for the new coronavirus pneumonia. He suffered convulsions and coma and was admitted to the intensive care unit. He is currently hospitalized.

Luo Yijun pointed out that the main activities of the case were homes and farmland. One of the farmlands had a pig house 500 meters away, and there was an abandoned fish farm behind the pig house. A large number of vector mosquito larvae were collected, and it was concluded that the possibility of infection was high. Measures were taken to clean the environment and hang mosquito traps at the case's home and surrounding pig farms and to strengthen health education advocacy for the local people.

Russia: Anthrax

A resident of the Stavropol Territory contracted anthrax as a result of contact with calf meat. This is reported by RIA Novosti with reference to the reference center for monitoring the anthrax pathogen of the Stavropol Research Anti-Plague Institute of Rospotrebnadzor.

Earlier it became known that the disease was confirmed in a resident of the village of Rozhdestvenskaya. The woman is undergoing treatment and there is no threat to her life.

The department clarified that the meat came from an animal that was not vaccinated against anthrax in a planned manner. In addition, isolation of the sick person and those who have been in contact with her will not be required. The reference center reminded that anthrax is not transmitted from person to person.

"The circle of contact persons has been determined and medical supervision has been established for them. Everyone is healthy and has no complaints. Anthrax is not transmitted from person to person, so the isolation of contact persons is not required," the department noted.

Mongolia: Anthrax

A human case of anthrax has been reported in the western Mongolian province of Uvs, local authorities said.

“The result of a polymerase chain reaction test has revealed that a 37 year old nomadic herder from Undurkhangai soum of the province has contracted anthrax," said a statement of the provincial department for zoonotic diseases.

Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium, which occurs naturally in soil and mainly affects livestock and wild animals. People can get sick with anthrax if they have contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

The Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture and Livestock met in Bujumbura with development partners to discuss the mechanisms to be put in place to deal with Rift Valley Fever [RVF) disease and decide on possible contributions in the fight against it according to the action plan already submitted. The minister of the environment, agriculture and livestock, Deo Guide Rurema recalled that since last April, Burundi has been attacked by Rift Valley Fever disease.

At the first meeting with development partners, they set up a technical team which drew up a roadmap that outlined actions to be put forward to contain the disease, in particular the mobilization of funds, the acquisition of vaccines and the vaccination campaign.

Figures show that 13 provinces are affected by this disease; 827 cows have been infected and 323 of them have already died.

United States: Strangles

A yearling paint colt in Otsego County, Michigan, presented with a fever and the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) reported a positive test. The horse is currently recovering in voluntary quarantine and has an unknown vaccination status.

Two horses in Genesee County, Michigan, also tested positive. The 1st, an unvaccinated 6 year old thoroughbred gelding, presented with a fever, cough, lethargy, nasal discharge, and enlarged lymph nodes on [4 May 2022] and was confirmed positive, according to the MDARD. A 10 year old quarter horse mare on the same premises presented with a fever and nasal discharge and tested positive. She was also unvaccinated. Both horses are recovering in voluntary quarantine, and a 3rd horse on the property was exposed and is suspected positive.

Lastly, an unvaccinated stallion in Van Buren County, Michigan, presented with enlarged lymph nodes and the MDARD confirmed a positive diagnosis. He's in voluntary quarantine and is recovering.

 

June 17, 2022

Italy: African Swine Fever

About 1,000 pigs are to be slaughtered in the Lazio region after 2 pigs tested positive for African swine fever (ASF) on a small family farm in the Rome area.

The 2 infected pigs were killed immediately, along with 7 others on the farm, as veterinary authorities prepare to slaughter all pigs within a 10-km radius of the site, an estimated 1,000 animals.

Angelo Ferrari, the government's special commissioner in charge of tackling swine fever, has also ordered the culling of "at least" 400 wild boar in the Lazio region around Rome, reports state broadcaster RAI.

In early May ASF was detected in wild boar in the city's northern Insugherata nature reserve, prompting authorities to ban picnics and seal off bins in a "red zone", covering a large area of north and north-west Rome.

The cull, scheduled to take place within 30 days, will see 200 wild boar killed in the "protected regional areas" and 200 killed "outside these areas", reports news agency ANSA.

The city's Grande Raccordo Anulare ringroad is also set to be fenced off in the coming days, according to RAI.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) has allowed livestock infected with the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and exhibiting mild symptoms to be used for the Islamic ritual Qurbani (animal sacrifice) during Eid al-Adha.

The approval was set with the issuance of MUI Fatwa Number 32 of 2022 concerning the regulation and guideline for the implementation of Qurbani worship during the FMD outbreak.

Chairman of MUI for Fatwa Asrorun Ni'am Soleh stated here on Friday [10 Jun 2022] that Qurbani with an animal infected with FMD is declared valid if symptoms in the animal are mild.

"In my opinion, this (the fatwa) is essential to be used as a guide for the community, including those who perform Qurbani and health workers, (to provide clarity) that not all types of animals affected by FMD do not meet the requirements," he explained.

Mild symptoms of FMD include lethargy, no appetite, fever, blisters around the nails and in the mouth, though not causing limping and significant weight loss. The blisters can also be treated to prevent secondary infection.

Cameroon: Monkeypox

Cameroon has reported 28 suspected cases of monkeypox with 2 deaths from 4 districts across 3 regions since the beginning of 2022. Of these cases, 3 cases have been laboratory confirmed from Kumba Health District in the South-West (2) and Ayos Health District in the Centre Region.

The Central African Republic has so far recorded 17 suspected cases of monkeypox as of May 19, including 8 confirmed cases and 2 deaths (CFR 11.8%), for 2022.

In the Republic of the Congo, since the beginning of 2022, 7 suspected cases with 3 deaths have been reported from Impfondo District in the country's northern department of Likouala on the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central Africa. Samples from 2 cases sent to the National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB) Laboratory in Kinshasa on 12 Apr 2022 were laboratory confirmed.

Kenya: Anthrax

A total of 3 people have been admitted to the same Kakamega hospital after eating meat from an infected cow. One of them has reportedly observed bitter reactions to his body after enjoying the meat.

Residents are now being urged to go to the hospital if they begin to experience any symptoms of anthrax. Anthrax is a highly contagious disease that commonly affects forest animals and wildlife around the world.

The hospital's clinical officer Brian Angadi confirmed the incident, saying the 3 patients ate meat from a cow with anthrax. "All 3 were diagnosed with anthrax. We made every effort to treat them and we managed to get them out of danger," Angadi told The Standard. However, he has warned of the possibility of receiving more patients as some residents of the village received a share of the meat.

Malawi: Monkeypox

Chiradzulu District Hospital has sent to Lilongwe samples taken from a suspected monkeypox patient who died June 10 at Chiradzulu District Hospital.

According to a report from Chirazulu District Health Office, the patient was taken to the hospital and presented with a painful rash all over the body with itchy and burning sensation. The rash started from the head and spread to all parts of the body. The patient also had fever and body and back pains

The symptoms started on June 5. The patient was admitted at the Chiradzulu district hospital, taken to the isolation ward after suspecting monkeypox, and pronounced dead the next morning.

From interviews, health workers noted that there was no known case of monkeypox from the area where the suspected case was coming from, and he had no travelling history to link with the infection transmission or that it has been imported from somewhere. The patient was working as a farmer, and there was no person at home with the same condition.

Philippines: Japanese Encephalitis

The Department of Health (DOH) 5 Bicol in southern Luzon reported Saturday on 7 Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in the region from January to the end of April.

Camarines Sur had 4 cases; Sorsogon had 2; and one in Manito, Albay.

JE is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. About 68,000 clinical cases are reported annually. It usually occurs in rural or agricultural areas, often associated with rice farming.

JE virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

June 10, 2022

Israel: Avian Influenza

Two wild birds were found to be infected with the H5N8 strain of avian influenza in May in Israel, according to an Agriculture Ministry report to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

According to the report, a Eurasian Sparrowhawk was found near Petah Tikva and tested positive in mid-April. In early May, a White Stork which was found near Ruhama in southern Israel tested positive for the bird flu.

The Agriculture Ministry has not issued a statement about the new cases. No new cases have been reported since, although the report described the event as "ongoing." Before these 2 cases, the last time the H5N8 strain was reported in Israel was April 2021.

The new cases come just months after a large outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza swept through Israel during the winter with the last outbreak reported in February in northern Israel.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

The Department of Health (DOH) in Eastern Visayas has reported 53 cases of leptospirosis since Jan. 1. Of these 53 individuals, 8 died, according to Jelyn Malibago, the regional information officer of the DOH. "We expect more cases of leptospirosis as the rainy season begins," she said.

The health official urged the public not to wade in flooded areas, to avoid getting the bacteria mainly from the urine of [infected] animals like rodents. If one is to wade in flood water, Malibago said he or she should wear boots and gloves; drain potentially contaminated water; control rodents in the house by using traps or poison; and maintain cleanliness.

Of the 53 cases [in Eastern Visayas Region], 22 were from Leyte; 10 from Samar; 7 each from Southern Leyte and Eastern Samar; 5 from Northern Samar; and 2 from Biliran.

The 3 deaths due to leptospirosis in Leyte were from Tacloban City [provincial capital city of Leyte], Abuyog, and Hilongos; 2 deaths from the towns of Padre Burgos and Hinunangan in Southern Leyte; 2 deaths from Basey and Catbalogan City in Samar; and 1 death from Maydolong town in Eastern Samar.

Mexico: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

So far this year, 5 minors have died from rickettsiosis, caused by a bacterium of the Rickettsia genus, which is related to the bite of infected ticks. "The cases (of rickettsiosis) that have been detected have died, 5 so far this year," reported Luis Alfonso Carrillo González, director of municipal Public Health. "They were minors and that is what is striking," he explained.

According to sources from the Coahuila Health Secretariat, 4 of the deceased patients were from Saltillo, and 1 was from San Pedro. Carrillo González pointed out that children and young people are generally the most exposed to contracting rickettsiosis due to having more contact with animals and vacant places, although anyone is susceptible to becoming infected.

The deaths in the Coahuila capital represented a significant increase in mortality from this disease, since in previous years there were 1 to 2 deaths in the year, out of a total of 10 or 12 infections, according to the head of the Directorate of Municipal Public Health.

Meanwhile, the State Secretary of Health reported that last year, 6 people infected with rickettsia died, for which he highlighted the importance of the State Program for the Prevention and Control of Rickettsia, mainly in Saltillo, Parras, and San Pedro, where in recent years this type of patient has been recorded for years.

United States: Tularemia

The Pueblo County, Colorado, Health Department has confirmed the 1st human tularemia case in 2022 in a child.

"Pueblo residents, especially those living in Pueblo West, are advised that tularemia-causing bacteria may be present in some of the mammals, especially rabbits, rodents, and hares, and on the ground where these animals may be active," said Alicia Solis, program manager at the Pueblo Department of Public Health and Environment. Solis added, "Human tularemia cases are rare, but some activities may increase the risk of developing the diseas

 These activities may include inhaling or drinking contaminated soil or water, having direct skin contact with infected animals, or being bitten by a tick or deer fly."

Tularemia, also known as "rabbit fever," can reportedly be spread through soil contaminated "with the droppings or urine of sick animals such as rabbits, and tularemia-causing bacteria can aerosolize and be inhaled when a person mows, blows leaves, or turns up soil. Because tularemia is known to be in Pueblo County, precautions to prevent tularemia infection should always be taken, especially when mowing weeds or grass and when soil is disturbed," emphasized Solis.

United States: Avian Influenza

A backyard flock of birds in Snohomish County, Washington, is the latest to test positive for the highly contagious avian influenza, also known as bird flu, the Washington State Department of Agriculture announced.

The detection was confirmed May 27, bringing the total number of counties where the flu has been found to 9.

WSDA continues to urge flock owners to protect their healthy flocks, particularly by keeping them away from wild waterfowl.

"In all backyard detections, we've seen significant exposure to wild waterfowl," said Washington State Veterinarian Dr. Amber Itle.

According to WSDA, flock owners can take steps to avoid introducing diseases to their flocks, such as practicing good biosecurity, washing boots or shoes before entering and when leaving a chicken coop, and sanitizing equipment used around poultry.

Congo: Plague

A first case of pneumonic plague was recorded June 2 in the health zone of Rethy, in the territory of Djugu (Ituri). The victim is a man in his 40s living in Belendju village in the Lokpa health area. Following a few symptoms presented, such as fever and headaches, he was taken to the general reference hospital in Rethy, where he was placed in isolation and under treatment. The rapid test carried out revealed the case of pneumonic plague, said doctor Jean de Dieu Dheda.

This situation worries the local health authorities, because this case comes on top of the bubonic plague, which is not yet under control. Indeed, this entity is already facing the epidemic of bubonic plague triggered since March 2022 with 5 deaths out of the 217 positive cases notified. For the moment, the health zone is faced with problems of stock shortages of drugs for the treatment of patients. Apart from this need, explains this doctor, the medical profession lacks protective equipment as well as other items.

The head doctor of the Rethy health zone pleads for assistance in medicines and protective equipment, in order to cut the chain of spread of these diseases.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

Rift Valley fever (FVR), an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that is most commonly seen in certain animals such as cattle, bison, sheep, goats, and camels and that can also cause disease in human beings, has been declared in Burundi since the end of April.

The situation is still under control, but after a month there are cases in 8 provinces of the country, and if the epidemic were to spread further, the consequences would be dramatic. Livestock farming is an essential sector in Burundi, the crisis of which affects all other economic and social spheres, because it affects nutrition and general confidence.

As economist Faustin Ndikumana notes, "In Burundi, a rural and densely populated country, the room for maneuver is reduced in terms of diversification of the economy, so if farming and nutrition are severely affected, as we fear, the situation will risk being dramatic, since even now, food inflation is a nightmare for families."

Canada: Lyme Disease

Officials in Quebec's Eastern Townships are warning of a spike in ticks carrying Lyme disease, putting residents and visitors at high risk of exposure.

In 2021, the number of people infected with the disease in the region doubled compared to the year before -- 387 last year compared to 157 in 2020 -- and more than half of the people infected with Lyme disease in the province contracted it in the Eastern Townships.

"This is a serious problem, and I think that the population must take it seriously," said Bromont Mayor Louis Villeneuve. "The tick is here, we have to live with it, we have to be careful."

At a news conference held in Bromont, public health officials said the disease is spreading rapidly, affecting the regional county municipality of Le Granit as well as towns like Windsor and Val-des-Sources. "These were towns that were not very affected before," said Dr. Geneviève Baron, a medical advisor for public health in the Eastern Townships and a member of the Canadian Lyme Disease Research Network.

Nepal: Scrub Typhus

In the last week alone, at least 21 scrub typhus cases have been detected at the laboratory of Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH), Kathmandu, Nepal. Samples were sent from different hospitals in Kathmandu, from those who presented with fever or symptoms that look similar to scrub typhus.

Scrub typhus is often seen at STIDH between July and October, with a peak in September, meaning scrub typhus probably has started spreading in Nepal, and thus, cases are expected to increase in the coming days or weeks.

Kyrgyzstan: Tick-borne Encephalitis

In Bishkek, 5 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were registered, the Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance reported.

According to it, a total of 312 people turned to medical help with tick bites, and 19 of them received immunoglobulin. Among residents of the city of Bishkek, 5 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were registered, and all patients received treatment and were discharged from hospital.

The center recalled that tick-borne encephalitis is an acute infectious viral disease with a primary lesion of the central nervous system. Consequences of the disease range from complete recovery to health disorders leading to disability and death.

The causative agent of the disease (arbovirus) is transmitted to a person in the 1st minutes of sucking by a tick infected with the virus along with anesthetic saliva.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

Northern Territory Health is urging Territorians and visitors to take steps to protect themselves from Japanese encephalitis (JE) after an increased number of feral pigs have tested positive for the disease in the Top End in recent days.

Medical Entomology Unit director Nina Kurucz warned that JE is a serious disease carried by mosquitoes capable of infecting humans and animals.

"The highest risk period for being bitten by an infected mosquito is after sundown within 3.1 miles of wetlands where feral pigs and water birds potentially infected with JE are present, Kurucz said.

She said that 44 feral pigs infected with JE have been recorded in Victoria Daly, Litchfield, Marrakai-Douglas Daly, and Cox-Daly region and the Tiwi Islands since March this year.

"The best way to prevent JE and other mosquito-borne viruses is to avoid getting bitten," Kurucz said. "It is recommended people wear protective light-colored clothing with long sleeves, long trousers, and socks in areas where mosquito bites are likely. People should also use a protective repellent containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalypt."

Denmark: Listeriosis

Eight people in Denmark have been infected with Listeria in the space of 2 weeks and 3 have died. The Statens Serum Institut, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, and DTU [National] Food Institute are investigating to try and find the source of the outbreak.

Between May 13-29, 5 men and 3 women became infected with the same type of Listeria. Patients range from 33 to 93 years old and all of them had an underlying disease or other immune system issue prior to infection that made them particularly vulnerable. 2 had meningitis, 5 had sepsis, including a pregnant woman, and 1 had a cerebral abscess.

All 8 have been hospitalized and 3 people died within 30 days of the sample being taken. 7 of them are from the Hovedstaden region of the country.

Whole genome sequencing found the strains were closely related and of the sequence type (ST) 37. The Statens Serum Institut is responsible for sequencing isolates from patients and interviewing them or their relatives to identify the possible source of infection.

 

May 26, 2022

Uganda: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax disease has been reported in Bududa District. This follows the death of 10 cows in Bumabara village, in Bunatsami sub-county.

The Bududa District agriculture officer, Dr. Felix Odongo, says that tests carried out by the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed the disease. He says one person succumbed to the disease, and 13 others are undergoing treatment after eating meat from an infected cow. He adds that they have tentatively halted the sale of animals in the open market and movement of animals in and out of the district. Augustine Wamini, the Bunatsami Sub County councillor, noted that the incident has caused fear among the residents because meat from infected animals was being sold in the markets.

According to WHO for Animal Health, infected animals may present with high fever, muscle tremors, and difficulty breathing seen shortly before the animal collapses and dies. Unclotted blood may exude from all the natural openings, and the body may not stiffen after death.

Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

The Kurdistan Region has recorded a second infection with "hemorrhagic fever" in a citizen of Sinjar district in Nineveh Governorate. Zakho health director, Dr. Shaker Abdel Rahman, said in a statement to Kurdish media that "a resident of Sinjar district was confirmed to have hemorrhagic fever, after he was suspected of hemorrhage due to the bleeding he was suffering from."

Abdul Rahman added, "the citizen was sent to Zakho in the beginning, and then he was sent to Dohuk, where the hospital sent his samples to the Baghdad Central Laboratory." He explained that "the affected person owns sheep and livestock, as he was suffering from some symptoms, and he was rushed to sleep in Zakho Hospital, and we suspected that he was infected, before it was confirmed."

It is noteworthy that this is the 2nd case of hemorrhagic fever in the Kurdistan region, and the 1st was recorded in Erbil a few days ago.

Kazakhstan: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Since the beginning of the year, 205 people have suffered from tick bites in Qyzylorda. Of these, 3 residents of the city were examined for suspected Crimean-Congo fever, Kazinform's correspondent reports.

"The diagnosis of the first patient was revealed through laboratory, epidemiological and clinical studies. The diagnoses of the other 2 patients have been changed due to the fact that the results of laboratory tests were negative," commented Aiman Zhanakhaeva, spokeswoman for the Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Control of the Qyzylorda region.

Earlier it was reported that more than 80 children sought medical help after being bitten by ticks in North Kazakhstan region. More than 800 children were bitten by ticks in the Almaty region, and one probable case of Crimean-Congo fever was registered in Shymkent.

United States: Legionellosis

An outbreak of legionnaires' disease has been reported in a Bronx neighborhood, health officials said May 20.

According to the city Department of Health, 4 people in the borough's Highbridge neighborhood have been diagnosed with the disease, which is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria that forms in warm water. Other individuals are awaiting test results.

Legionnaires' is not contagious and is treatable with antibiotics if caught early, officials said.

The health department said it is investigating and "sampling and testing water from all cooling tower systems in the area of the cluster."

The Legionella bacteria typically grow in "cooling towers, whirlpool spas, hot tubs, humidifiers, hot water tanks, and evaporative condensers of large air-conditioning systems," the department said.

Those experiencing flu-like symptoms such as coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing are encouraged to get tested by their doctor. Those over the age of 50 [years], cigarette smokers, with chronic lung disease, and those with compromised immune systems are considered at higher risk of legionnaires'.

United States: Avian Influenza

A fox kit from Anoka County, Minnesota, has tested positive for a deadly, highly contagious bird flu that has killed countless wild birds this spring [2022] to the concern of wildlife specialists.

The positive case is the 1st confirmed of highly pathogenic avian influenza, or HPAI, in a wild mammal in Minnesota, according to the Department of Natural Resources [DNR].

It's not unprecedented -- 2 red fox kits in Ontario recently tested positive for the flu strain, the DNR said. They were the 1st reported cases in mammals in North America.

DNR Wildlife Health Program Supervisor Michelle Carstensen said that fox kits already were on the agency's radar, knowing their diet and their biological vulnerability. The DNR was aware of ailing fox kits turning up at a wildlife rehabilitation center in Sherburne County.

Canada: Avian Influenza

Birds at a commercial poultry farm in Abbotsford have tested positive for avian influenza, according to the British Columbia (BC) Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Detection of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus usually requires euthanization of every bird in an affected flock.

In this case, the ministry announced, the farm was put under quarantine by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and all other poultry farms within a 10-kilometerradius received notification of the outbreak.

Avian influenza has been spreading globally since late 2021, and cases in Canada this year had so far mostly affected commercial and private flocks of poultry and egg producers in Alberta and Ontario, So far, according to CFIA figures, millions of birds in Canada have either died of the virus or been culled as a result of outbreaks. Avian influenza is not a food-safety concern for humans eating cooked poultry or eggs.

The news of the latest outbreak, confirmed by the CFIA, comes after confirmed positive tests in seven small private flocks throughout the province. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, those "backyard" flocks were in Richmond, the central Kootenays region, Kelowna, and Armstrong. The Abbotsford case is the 1st farm to be affected in the Fraser Valley during this latest outbreak, the ministry said.

Fiji: Leptospirosis

The Ministry of Health & Medical Services - Fiji reports 2068 lab-confirmed cases of leptospirosis this year. A slight upward trend in cases with case numbers is noted above the outbreak threshold nationally, driven by cases in the Western Division.

Case numbers in the Western Division are increasing and remain above the outbreak alert threshold, indicating more cases than the expected number for this time of the year for this endemic disease.

The leptospirosis bacterium Leptospira spreads to humans through the urine of infected animals, such as cows, pigs, rats, and dogs. To reduce your individual risk, it is important to understand that exposure to animals, soil, mud, and floodwaters during work or recreational activities increases your risk of infection.

Important prevention measures include wearing full covered footwear at all times when going outdoors, avoiding wading or swimming in flooded waters, using clean fresh water to wash up after exposure to muddy waters, and keeping all food and drinks covered and away from rats. For workplaces, practice good personal hygiene at all times, cover cuts and wounds well, and use protective equipment, especially footwear when in flooded and/or muddy areas.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

Sierra Leone's health authorities have confirmed the first cases of human infections of anthrax, less than a week after an outbreak of the disease was reported in animals. The Ministry of Health says 3 people tested positive for the bacterial infection which was first confirmed in animals May 22 in the northern Port Loko district. A spokesman in the Ministry of Health said the human cases were detected in the neighboring Karene District*.

Harold Thomas, Communications Lead in the Directorate of Health Security and Emergencies in the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) told ManoReporters that samples from 4 people who presented with symptoms of the disease were tested and 3 came back positive for anthrax.

In Port Loko, over 200 animals have been confirmed dead due to the outbreak. Officials in the ministries of Agriculture and Health said they mounted an investigation in response to reports of several unexplained deaths of animals in Tinkabere Village in Kamasondo, Bakeloko Chiefdom. A total of 223 livestock - 91 heads of cattle, 53 goats, and 79 sheep - were eventually confirmed dead.

According to Thomas, there has been no indication of human-to-human transmission, which means that those who were infected in Karene might have gotten it from either infected animals, animal products, or bacteria spores.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

The first suspected outbreaks of FMD in Indonesia occurred in cattle on village premises in the northern and western suburbs of Surabaya. This was the 1st report to OIE of FMD in the region, although it is endemic in neighboring countries in mainland South-East Asia.

Initial clinical cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever and were treated unsuccessfully before further disease spread and mortalities were observed, so it is suspected that FMD could have been spreading in cattle on Java since mid-April. Surabaya is the 2nd-largest city in Indonesia. The diagnosis was reported to the OIE.

As of May 11, cattle in 4 districts of the East Java province (Java) and 2 districts in Aceh province (Sumatra) have been affected by FMD. There are reports of 79 outbreaks in East Java and one in Aceh.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

The Burundian Ministry of Environment, Agriculture and Livestock alerted on May 23 of the detection for the 1st time in the country of Rift Valley fever (RVF), with an estimated loss of at least 100 head of cattle.

"Since the end of April 2022, cases of an animal disease mainly affecting cattle with an unusual clinical picture have been reported in the provinces of Kirundo and Ngozi, in the north of the country," underlined Serges Nkurunziza, Managing Director of Breeding.

Symptoms include abortion, nasal bleeding, hyperthermia, diarrhea often mingled with blood, generalized weakness and inappetence leading to death. According to him, since the outbreak of this disease, 100 cases of cattle mortality have been recorded.

Currently, this disease has already spread to other provinces of the country, such as Kayanza (north), Karusi (center), Cibitoke (west), Bujumbura (west) and Makamba in the south of the country.

General: Monkeypox

Around 20 countries where monkeypox is not endemic have reported outbreaks of the viral disease, with more than 100 confirmed or suspected infections mostly in Europe. The outbreaks are raising alarm because monkeypox, which spreads through close contact and was first found in monkeys, mostly occurs in west and central Africa, and only very occasionally spreads elsewhere.

Countries reporting outbreaks this year include: Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.

 

May 19, 2022

United States: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A 1-year-old spayed female rabbit tested positive for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service said May 13.

Known as RHDV2, the infection is a foreign animal disease caused by multiple virus strains. It is highly contagious and can be fatal to domestic and wild rabbits.

It cannot, however, be transmitted from animals to humans, the department said.

The rabbit death's reportedly happened May 8. A laboratory test confirmed the infection.

Another rabbit from the premises also died from what is being considered potentially RHDV2 related, the department said. Another rabbit on the premises has been quarantined and isn't showing the disease's signs

The outbreak's source has not yet been identified, and there is no evidence of infection in other locations.

United States: Strangles

On May 10, the Ohio State Racing Commission revealed that a single case of strangles had been confirmed on the backstretch of Thistledown Racing in North Randall. Three barns were placed under quarantine, and no horses were allowed on or off the grounds at that time.

The OSRC released the following update on the case to the Paulick Report on May 10:

From more than 250 swabs from the 3 quarantined barns, there was one swab that returned a suspect test for Strep. equi. That horse was located in the same stable as the first confirmed positive. The horse with the suspect test for Strep. equi was removed from the grounds and placed into isolation on the same farm as the 1st horse.

The barn that had the horse with the suspect remains in quarantine. The other 2 barns at Thistledown have been released from quarantine.

Horses are allowed to ship into Thistledown, however, once on the grounds they are not allowed to leave until the horses who are stabled in the affected barn at Thistledown complete the 2nd swab in approximately 2 weeks.

Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease which is characterized by swelling in a horse's lymph nodes around the horse's head and jaws. The swollen lymph nodes will sometimes abscess, and the abscesses may rupture and drain through the skin or into the guttural pouch, which may cause additional infection and complications.

United Kingdom: Monkeypox

In London, 2 individuals have been diagnosed with monkeypox, confirms the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA). The cases live together in the same household. They are not linked to the previous confirmed case announced on May 7. Where and how they acquired their infection remains under investigation.

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that does not spread easily between people. It is usually a mild, self-limiting illness, and most people recover within a few weeks. However, severe illness can occur in some people.

The infection can be spread when someone is in close contact with an infected person; however, there is a very low risk of transmission to the general population.

One of the cases is receiving care at the expert infectious disease unit at St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London. The other case is isolating and does not currently require hospital treatment.

As a precautionary measure, UKHSA experts are working closely with the individuals and NHS colleagues and will be contacting people who might have been in close contact to provide information and health advice.

South Africa: Lassa Fever

South African health authorities reported May 13 a case of Lassa fever diagnosed in a man from KwaZulu-Natal.

The man had extensive travel history in Nigeria before returning to South Africa. He fell ill after entering South Africa and was hospitalized in a Pietermaritzburg hospital. The diagnosis of Lassa fever was confirmed through laboratory testing conducted at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service. Sadly, the man succumbed to the infection. Currently efforts are underway to trace and monitor all possible contacts. No secondary cases of Lassa fever have been confirmed at the time of this report.

Cases of Lassa fever in travelers returning from endemic countries are reported from time to time. In 2007 a case of Lassa fever was diagnosed in South Africa. The case involved a Nigerian citizen with extensive travel history in rural parts of Nigeria before falling ill, and he received medical treatment in South Africa. No secondary cases of Lassa fever were reported in this instance.

Lassa fever is a viral infection that is endemic to the West African countries and mostly reported in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. Lassa fever is less frequently reported from Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Ivory Coast. Up to 300,000 cases of Lassa fever, with about 5,000 deaths, are recorded annually in the endemic countries. Currently there is no vaccine for Lassa fever.

The natural host of this virus in endemic countries is a rodent species called the multi-mammate rat. The rats are persistently infected and shed the virus in their urine and feces. Humans can come into contact with the virus through direct contact or inhalation of the virus in areas that are infested with the infected rats, e.g., contact with contaminated materials, ingestion of contaminated food, or inhalation of air that has been contaminated with urine droplets. Person-to-person transmission of the virus does not occur readily, and the virus is not spread through casual contact.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Minister of agriculture Mentan Syahrul Yasin Limpo said that a serotype of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus that was attacking local cattle in 6 [regencies] had been found. Therefore, the manufacture of FMD vaccine in the country will soon be accelerated.

"While waiting, the director general (DG) livestock and animal health at the Ministry of Agriculture [DG AH-MOA]) has been assigned to import vaccines. Not [a large quantity], just [while] waiting for the vaccine to be available because it takes time to manufacture. In 14 days the director general will bring it," Syahrul said in a press statement.

The DG AH-MOA, Nasrullah, added that the Commission of Veterinary Experts is currently conducting discussions, to accelerate the implementation of domestic FMD vaccine manufacture. "God willing, hopefully we can make it as soon as possible. Because we have made it before, when the FMD was released, only the serotype was different so it had to be remade again. But the instrument, the expert, is with us," he said. "Earlier, the minister said, the serotype has been found. Serotype O with strain Ind-2001, apparently this is common in South East Asia," continued Nasrullah. At the same time, he said, efforts will be made to increase the immunity of farm animals.

"This FMD is a virus so there is no cure but there is prevention. While waiting for the vaccine to be made, we import it for areas affected by FMD. If it is not exposed [animal population], we will use our own vaccine," said Nasrullah.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

Sierra Leone has reported an outbreak of the deadly anthrax disease for the first time in almost 30 years. Authorities say cases were detected in animals in the north western region of the country, where more than 200 livestock were confirmed to have died.

The country's minister of agriculture Abu Bakarr Karim made the announcement at a press briefing on May 16. Officials say it followed reports of animals dying in Port Loko District, from where samples were collected and tested and the result came back positive for anthrax.

Anthrax is described as a serious infectious disease caused by a bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. It occurs naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals. Humans can also get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. But the disease is treatable.

Officials told journalists that no human case had been recorded so far in the Sierra Leonean outbreak, and they said they were considering instituting measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

Portugal: Monkeypox

Portugal has 5 confirmed cases of monkeypox, the Directorate-General for Health (DGS) said in a statement, noting that the country has more than 20 suspected cases of the virus. "This May, more than 20 suspected cases of infection with the monkeypox virus were identified, all in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region, 5 of which have already been confirmed by the National Institute of Health. The cases, mostly young, and all male, are stable, presenting ulcerative lesions", says the statement from the DGS.

The statement also indicates that the DGS centralizes "at this stage, all actions of detection, assessment, management, and risk communication related to these cases, through the Center for Public Health Emergencies (CESP)".

The monkeypox virus is in the Orthopoxvirus genus and causes a communicable disease through contact with animals or close contact with infected people or contaminated materials, explains the DGS.

"The disease is rare and, usually does not spread easily among humans," the statement from the health authority clarifies. "Individuals who present ulcerative lesions, skin rash, palpable lymph nodes, possibly accompanied by fever, chills, headaches, muscle pain, and tiredness, should seek clinical advice. In case of suspicious symptoms, the individual should refrain from direct physical contact [with other people]," the statement from the DGS adds which also indicates that the disease does not require specific treatment and is "usually self-limited in weeks."

United States: Monkeypox

The confirmed case poses no risk to the general public.

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) on May 18 confirmed a single case of monkeypox virus infection in an adult male with recent travel to Canada. Initial testing was completed at the State Public Health Laboratory in Jamaica Plain and confirmatory testing was completed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). DPH is working closely with the CDC, relevant local boards of health, and the patient's healthcare providers to identify individuals who may have been in contact with the patient while he was infectious. This contact tracing approach is the most appropriate given the nature and transmission of the virus. The case poses no risk to the public, and the individual is hospitalized and in good condition.

Monkeypox is a rare but potentially serious viral illness that typically begins with flu-like illness and swelling of the lymph nodes and progresses to a rash on the face and body. Most infections last 2-to-4 weeks. In parts of central and west Africa where monkeypox occurs, people can be exposed through bites or scratches from rodents and small mammals, preparing wild game, or having contact with an infected animal or possibly animal products. The virus does not spread easily between people; transmission can occur through contact with body fluids, monkeypox sores, items that have been contaminated with fluids or sores (clothing, bedding, etc.), or through respiratory droplets following prolonged face-to-face contact.

Panama: Leishmaniasis

Last week, the minister of health, Luis Francisco Sucre, reported that there has been an increase in cases of leishmaniasis in the country, according to an El Siglo report. He detailed that to date more than 240 cases have been reported, a higher number than in previous years. The Metropolitan Health Region is the one that has registered the most cases to date, with 31 people affected.

The minister reported that leishmaniasis is transmitted by a vector and occurs in some areas where they are in greater contact with nature; for example, the regional areas in Nägbe Buglé, Cerro Azul, 24 de Diciembre, and even in Guna Yala.He gave assurance that a strategy is being devised to reinforce the team to make more diagnoses and be able to attend to these people.

People with cutaneous leishmaniasis who develop clinical evidence of infection have one or more sores on their skin. The sores can change in size and appearance over time. The sores may start as papules (bumps) or nodules (lumps) and may end up as ulcers (like a volcano, with a raised edge and central crater); skin ulcers may be covered by scab or crust. The sores usually are painless but can be painful.

May  12, 2022

Iceland: Avian Influenza

On May 3 it was confirmed that the bird flu virus that has been causing all kinds of bird species both wild and domestic to succumb to the disease, is the same one that has been circulating in Europe.

Brigitte Brugge, a specialist for poultry diseases, concluded the diagnosis. "What we have seen now with research over the last 2 weeks is that these bird flu viruses are widespread in wild birds in Iceland. We have now found these viruses in different bird species," she says.

Brigitte says it is quite clear that bird flu viruses have entered the country with migratory birds this spring.

A total of 18 positive samples from dead birds have been found in 16 places all over Iceland. 7 wild bird species have been affected by the virus: barnacle goose, sea eagle, raven, greylag goose, white-fronted goose, black-backed gull, and the northern gannet.

Congo: Plague

The Rethy health zone, located in Djugu territory, Ituri province, DR Congo, continues to report cases of plague. A total of 101 suspected cases of bubonic plague with 2 deaths (case fatality rate 1.9%) have now been reported.

To date, 2 health areas continue to report human cases of plague: Lokpa at 97 cases or 96% and 1 death; Rassia at 4 cases or 3.9% and 1 death. Of the 11 villages affected, Dzavikpa remains the most affected (47 cases or 46%), followed by Nioka forest (11 cases or 10.9%).

During the week of April 18, the Uketha Health Area reported 77 dead rats in 17 households. One household in Godu village, reportedly lost its entire guinea pig farm of 50 individuals. The investigation team was able to collect a sample from a black rat that tested positive for plague using RDT (rapid diagnostic test). The response team immediately proceeded to disinsectize these households with deltamethrin.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

A Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] outbreak has been reported in a provincial city in Indonesia, presenting an alarming escalation in biosecurity threats for the Asia Pacific region and Australia's livestock sector.

The FMD diagnosis has been made by an Indonesian reference laboratory and is yet to be formally confirmed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

Beef Central understands the Indonesian Government is in the process of collecting samples to send to an OIE world reference laboratory in England for formal diagnosis and determination of the exact strain so appropriate vaccines can be ordered.

Details of the reported incursion are laid out in an official East Java Provincial Government incident report and suggest the disease may have been spreading in cattle in and around the city of Surabaya on the large Indonesian island of Java for some weeks.

England: Monkeypox

A person in England has been diagnosed with monkeypox, the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) has said.

The patient had recently travelled from Nigeria, which is where they are believed to have contracted the infection, before travelling to the UK, the UKHSA said.

The person is receiving care at the expert infectious disease unit at the Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London.

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection which kills up to 1 in 10 of those infected but does not spread easily among people.

It is the 7th ever case of monkeypox in the UK and is the only case recorded since 2 patients were identified in North Wales in 2021.

United States: Legionellosis

Health officials have confirmed a fourth case of Legionnaires' disease in a guest who stayed at the Grand Islander by Hilton Grand Vacations in Waikiki.

The 4th case was diagnosed on April 16, the state Department of Health said. The individual with the disease is a non-Hawaii resident who stayed at the hotel. The 1st case was diagnosed in June 2021, followed by another in early March and a 3rd case in early April.

"Legionnaires' disease can potentially have severe consequences, and we encourage anyone who developed symptoms following a stay at the Grand Islander to contact a physician and DOH," said State Epidemiologist Dr. Sarah Kemble in a statement. "We are encouraged that the Hilton has brought in additional experts and is stepping up efforts to pinpoint potential sources of contamination and treat water sources as a precautionary measure."

United States: Avian Influenza

The Iowa Department of Agriculture is confirming a new case of the bird flu in Bremer County.

This backyard flock is the 2nd confirmed case of HPAI in Bremer County, Iowa. The 1st case was in a commercial turkey flock.

Officials say flock owners should prevent contact between their birds and wild birds and report sick birds or unusual deaths to state officials.

This brings the number of detections in Iowa up to 19. The following is the up-to-date list of commercial and backyard HPAI detections in Iowa:

Italy: African Swine Fever

African swine fever has been found in a wild boar in Italy's capital Rome, reported Reuters, citing a statement from the regional government.

An isolated outbreak of the deadly hog disease was reported in northwest Italy at the start of the year and the Rome case was the 1st time the illness had been detected in the center of the country.

Several thousand boars are believed to live in and around Rome, foraging for food in often overflowing rubbish bins. Officials carried out tests after a dead boar was discovered in the north of the city, and found it had swine fever.

African swine fever is harmless to humans but often fatal to pigs, leading to financial losses for farmers. It originated in Africa before spreading to Europe and Asia and has killed hundreds of millions of pigs worldwide.

Algeria: Foot and Mouth Disease

Three outbreaks of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been detected in Algeria since March 28. The phylogenetic characterization of the strains in question is not yet available.

This episode comes 3 months after Tunisia detected 6 outbreaks of serotype O. The disease had been absent from Tunisian territory since March 2019. Phylogenetic analyzes of the Tunisian strains had confirmed the EA-3 topotype, with 99.4% homology with Nigerian strains identified in 2021, and 97.1% homology with the O/EA-3 strain that had circulated in Maghreb in 2018-2019. These results were in favor of a new introduction of foot-and-mouth disease from sub-Saharan Africa.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

In South Australian [SA] piggeries, 2 new detections of Japanese encephalitis (JE) have been reported, including in the Mid Murray.

This brings the total number of cases in SA to 9, including the detection of cases in Murray Bridge and Coorong in March.

SA Pork assures shoppers there are no food safety issues associated with eating pork meat.

The 2 latest detections of JE on properties in the Mid Murray and Loxton Waikerie local government areas align with a February infection period. JE was known to be circulating in the South Australian environment at this time.

India: Kyasanur Forest Disease

A native of Sagar taluk, found infected with Kyasanur Forest disease [KFD], died at a hospital in Manipal on May 3. The man was admitted to the government hospital at Sagar and later he was shifted to Manipal in Udupi district. However, his condition did not improve and he succumbed to fever.

The victim was a member of Aralagodu Gram Panchayat [village council]. In the period 2019-20, many cases of KFD were reported in the gram panchayat and more than 20 people died.

The Department of Health and Family Welfare has taken up surveys in the locality to identify people with symptoms of the disease.

Georgia: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Three people are being treated at the Tbilisi Infectious Diseases Hospital for a serious infectious disease -- Crimean Congo fever, said Amiran Gamkrelidze, head of the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a particularly dangerous natural focal disease characterized by fever, severe intoxication, and hemorrhages on the skin and internal organs.

According to him, the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health is actively working with the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture to ensure that livestock is properly treated. The disease was first identified in 1944 in Crimea.

CCHF is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family. Symptoms come on suddenly with fever, myalgia (muscle pain), dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back or lower back pain, headache, eye inflammation, and photophobia (sensitivity to light). There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pain in the abdomen and throat, followed by sudden mood swings and confusion. After 2 to 4 days, excitement may be replaced by drowsiness, depression, and fatigue, and pain in the abdomen may be localized in the right upper part.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

Since September, Nigeria has continued to report sporadic cases of monkeypox (MPX). The monkeypox National Technical Working Group (TWG) has been monitoring cases and strengthening preparedness/response capacity.

A total of 46 suspected cases has been reported since Jan. 1. Of the suspected cases, 15 were confirmed from 7 states - Adamawa (3), Lagos (3), Cross River (2), FCT (2), Kano (2), Delta (2) and Imo (1) - but no death has been recorded.

The 10 new suspected cases in April [2022] were reported from 7 states - Bayelsa (3), Lagos (2), Kano (1), FCT (1), Delta (1), Edo (1) and Ogun (1).

The 5 new positive cases in April [2022] were confirmed from 4 states - Lagos (2), FCT (1), Kano (1) and Delta (1).

From September [2017] to [30 Apr 2022], a total of 558 suspected cases have been reported from 32 states in the country.

Canada: Equine Infectious Anemia

On March 23, Canadian Animal Health Surveillance System officials reported the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) quarantined a Ponoka County, Alberta, premises after a horse there tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA).

An accredited veterinarian had drawn a test sample from the horse at the owner's request in preparation for export to the United States. The horse did not exhibit any clinical signs when sampling occurred.

The CFIA is investigating and has put movement controls on other contact animals on the premises. Controls will remain in effect until all disease response protocols have been fulfilled, including additional testing and ordering confirmed cases be destroyed.

Officials have recommended improved biosecurity measures to the owners and might perform trace-out activities at additional premises as required by policy.

United States: Equine Herpesvirus

Following an equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) outbreak which began on March 21 in DeKalb County, Indiana, a 3rd horse's polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results confirmed another case of EHV-1.

The remaining 8 horses suspected of having EHV-1 remain isolated at the quarantined facility by order of the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH). No additional horses among the 30 exposed have been identified as suspect cases.

Israel: Foot and Mouth Disease

According to an investigation by the organization "Israel against live shipments", an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] has been spreading in Israel among farm animals for several months. The disease affected in particular calves from the meat industry (71% of the victims).

All live shipments to Israel originate from countries that are considered "free" of the disease, in which the animals are not vaccinated against it. The disease entered Israel from the Palestinian Authority. Since the beginning of the outbreak in February, 240,000 unvaccinated calves and lambs (as of the end of April 2022) have arrived (and continue to arrive) in Israel...

The virus strain had not been isolated in Israel before, and a vaccine used by the Ministry of Agriculture's veterinary services does not protect against it. The organization calls for an extension of quarantine times and warns of sanitary and environmental hazards caused by violations of importers' procedures.

May 5, 2022

United States: Avian Influenza

The first human case associated with the H5 bird flu in the United States was detected in a Colorado man. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shared information on the case with the public April 28, adding the "public health risk assessment remains low." The CDC adds people who have job-related or recreational exposures to infected birds are at a higher risk of infection and should take appropriate precautions.

The CDC has been monitoring people exposed to H5N1 virus-infected birds since the outbreaks were first detected in wild birds and poultry in late 2021. To date, H5N1 viruses have been found in US commercial and backyard birds in 29 states and in wild birds in 34 states. CDC has tracked the health of more than 2,500 people with exposures to H5N1 virus-infected birds, and this is the only case that has been found to date. Other people involved in the culling operation in Colorado have tested negative for H5 virus infection, but they are being tested again out of an abundance of caution. Several wild birds have tested positive for the virus in Colorado.

"This is the second human case associated with this specific group of H5 viruses that are currently predominant, and the first case in the United States," part of a news release from the CDC reads. "The first case internationally occurred in December 2021 in the United Kingdom in a person who did not have any symptoms and who raised birds that became infected with H5N1 virus. More than 880 human infections with earlier H5N1 viruses have been reported since 2003 worldwide, however, the predominant H5N1 viruses now circulating among birds globally are different from earlier H5N1 viruses."

Canada: Avian Influenza

A poultry flock has been infected with a new strain of bird flu, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency said April 26.

There are now 19 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of avian flu in Ontario. The federal agency estimates 250,000 birds in the province have been impacted since the first outbreak was declared in March.

The other outbreaks closest to London are near Durham in the Municipality of West Grey, in Chatham-Kent and near Thamesford in western Oxford County. Control zones have been set up around each property, so officials can control the movement of people and birds on and off those farms.

Outside of Ontario, there are outbreaks in every province except Prince Edward Island.

In 2015, federal and provincial officials spent months containing and eventually eradicating another strain of bird flu. That outbreak was contained to 3 farms in Oxford County. About 80.000 birds, mostly turkeys, were wiped out.

China: Avian Influenza

China has recorded the first human infection with the H3N8 strain of bird flu, the country's health authority said April 26, but said the risk of it spreading among people was low.

A 4-year-old boy from central Henan province was found to have been infected with the variant after developing a fever and other symptoms. No close contacts were infected with the virus, the National Health Commission (NHC) said in a statement. The child had been in contact with chickens and crows raised at his home, it added.

The H3N8 variant has previously been detected elsewhere in the world in horses, dogs, birds and seals, but no human cases of H3N8 have been reported, said the NHC. The commission said an initial assessment determined the variant did not yet have the ability to effectively infect humans, and the risk of a large-scale epidemic was low.

Many different strains of bird flu are present in China and some sporadically infect people, usually those working with poultry. Last year China reported the first human case of H10N3.

China has huge populations of both farmed and wild birds of many species, creating an ideal environment for avian viruses to mix and mutate. Growing surveillance of avian influenza in people also means more infections are being picked up.

 Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

The Division of Communicable Diseases Control in the Dhi Qar Health Department announced unprecedented rates of [infection with Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever, and has called for the activation of veterinary measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

The local government accused the Ministry of Agriculture of not providing resources for the control of parasitic insects that carry the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Haider Ali Hantoush, Director of the Communicable Diseases Control Division, told Al-Mada that "since the middle of 2021 until today, unprecedented and unexpected rates of [the Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever have been recorded", noting that the total infections (cases) amounted to 30, including 10 deaths during the same period."

Hantoush added that "the infections have resulted in 16 cases and 7 deaths during the 2nd half of 2021, 14 confirmed cases and 3 deaths during the first 3rd of 2022," stressing that "deaths constitute a 3rd of the number of the infected." He pointed out that "infections with hemorrhagic fever increased during the past year and the current year," revealing that "the last case and death recorded in the past was in 2018, while the years 2019, 2020 and the first half of 2021 did not witness any infection."

Hantoush pointed out that "infections began to escalate during the second half of 2021 and have continued so far to record unprecedented rates." He stressed that "[the Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever is a serious disease with a death rate of 40%."

South Sudan: Anthrax

There is an outbreak of anthrax infection in human beings in Warrap after laboratory analysis showed positive results, state health officials have declared.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as _Bacillus_. The disease occurs naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. People can also get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Dr. John Akol, the acting director general at the ministry, said they made the declaration after samples of 20 patients suspected of anthrax, which were taken to Uganda for further laboratory tests, were confirmed positive. Akol reveals the local authorities are in coordination with the national ministry of animal resources to contain the spread of the disease.

Some of the suspected cases under investigations were reported at Alek, Kuach North, and Payams in Gogrial West County in March [2022]. "Now the ministry of health and ministry of animal resources and fisheries in the state will work together to see the way forward to contain this disease," Akol told Sawa Sawa Network.

Germany: Lyme Disease

In Berlin, the number of reported cases of Lyme disease has increased in recent years. In 2021, 994 cases of the disease triggered by tick bites were reported to the Robert Koch Institute. In 2020, there were 959 cases, and in 2019, the number was 851 cases. "There were significantly more forest visitors in the pandemic years, so that was certainly an important factor in the increase," Berlin-based biologist and tick expert Olaf Kahl told German Press Agency.

Tick activity has not been particularly high since 2020, he said. "People have been exposed to more tick bites due to increased visits to the countryside," said the managing director of tick-radar GmbH, which conducts research projects on ticks nationwide. Fewer than 800 cases had been reported to the RKI in both 2017 and 2018.

According to Kahl, the months from March to July are the months with the strongest tick activity on average over many years. With their bite, ticks can transmit bacteria and viruses that trigger diseases such as Lyme disease and meningitis [encephalitis] (TBE) [Tick-Borne Encephalitis].

Those who stay on wide paths do not have to fear tick bites in forests and parks. As soon as one leaves the ways, however, it becomes dangerous. The animals hide in the leaf litter.

United States: Tuberculosis

Washington's tuberculosis (TB) cases are on the rise, putting state and local public health officials on heightened alert. Widespread disruptions in public health and healthcare services and missed TB diagnoses due to similarities in symptoms between COVID-19 and TB are thought to have contributed to TB cases rising both locally and globally.

TB reporting decreased in 2020 during the first year of the pandemic. Though efforts to prevent COVID-19 may also reduce the spread of TB, the decrease could also have been due to delayed or missed TB diagnoses because of strains in the health care system. Some people with TB may also have been misdiagnosed as having COVID-19.

Cases then rose notably beginning in 2021, when 199 cases of TB disease were reported, a 22% increase from 2020. Thus far in 2022, 70 cases have been reported and officials continue to monitor the situation closely. 17 new cases of TB disease all have connections with each other and several Washington state prisons, making it the state's largest outbreak in the last 20 years.

"It's been 20 years since we saw a cluster of TB cases like this," says Tao Sheng Kwan-Gett, MD, MPH, Washington State Chief Science Officer. "The pandemic has likely contributed to the rise in cases and the outbreak in at least one correctional facility," added Kwan-Gett. "Increased access to TB testing and treatment in the community is going to be key to getting TB under control."