1. CEEZAD Home
  2. »News and Events
  3. »World News

Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases

World News

Disclaimer: The opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations contained herein are those of the respective author(s) and do not reflect the official views or policies of CEEZAD.

December 9, 2022

Australia: Legionellosis

Gardeners in New South Wales have been urged to wear face masks and gloves when handling potting mix and compost to avoid contracting legionnaires' disease.

The warning comes after a Sydney woman aged in her 60s died from the disease after handling potting mix. NSW Health said there had been 96 cases of legionnaires' disease this year from the type of bacteria that can be found in potting mix and soils.

NSW Health executive director Jeremy McAnulty urged gardeners to wear masks and gloves when handling potting mix. '"Most people who breathe in the bacteria don't become ill, but the risk of infection increases if you're older, a smoker, or have a weakened immune system," Dr McAnulty said.

"Wetting the potting mix first also helps prevent any contaminated potting mix dust blowing up into the air and being inhaled. Even if you've been wearing gloves, make sure to wash your hands thoroughly with soap before eating or drinking as the bacteria could still be there."

Peru: Avian Influenza

More than 5,500 pelicans have died in Peru in recent weeks due to an outbreak of bird flu. Several beaches are littered with the carcasses of the dead animals and some have also been found in protected areas.

In total, more than 13,000 birds have been killed by the H5N1 avian influenza strain, according to biologists. Peruvian officials have declared a health alert to prevent its spread to farm poultry.

H5N1 can spread extremely quickly between birds through their droppings and saliva. The virus can also spread to humans if they are in close contact with an infected bird, but scientists say the current strain seems to be low risk for this. Peru's agricultural health authorities have warned people not to handle wild birds or their carcasses and to notify them if they spot any dead animals.

As well as the outbreak in Peru, there is currently a wave of bird flu in Europe and in the United States. Particularly large numbers of wild birds have been killed by bird flu this year, with sea birds especially hard hit.

United States: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A highly infectious deadly disease affecting rabbits and hares was detected in Napa County, California  this week after several wild rabbits were found dead in the area, officials announced.

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), caused by a form of viral hepatitis, is currently driving a multi-state outbreak. The disease has been reported across several California counties since 2020, but the rabbit deaths near Yountville are the 1st detections in the Napa area, according to a press release from the county.

The illness does not affect humans and does not pose a threat to humans or food safety, but pet rabbits may be in danger of catching the disease.

RHD is caused by 2 different related viruses -- RHDV1 and RHDV2. The current outbreak is due to the RHDV2 virus.

Of rabbits exposed to the virus, almost all die and many times, rabbits do not show signs before suddenly dying. If they do show signs, they may show fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, muscle spasms, breathing difficulties, blue-colored lips, or bleeding from the mouth and nose. It can take between 1 and 5 days from the time a rabbit is exposed to the virus before it develops signs, county officials said.

India: Japanese Encephalitis

On Nov. 3,, a 4-year-old boy was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of Sassoon General Hospital. At the time of admission, the child was showing symptoms of fever, headache, weakness, and fits. Accordingly, various tests were conducted, the patient was treated, and his blood and CSF samples were sent to the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Dr. Vinayak Kale, Director of Sassoon General Hospital, Pune, said, "The National Institute of Virology, Pune reported that the patient's report in the said case was positive for Japanese encephalitis.

Dr. Aarti Kinikar, Professor and Head of the Department of Pediatrics, informed, "The child was kept on a ventilator for 9 days, and along with that, the necessary medicines were started. After 17 days of intensive care, he was admitted to the board for further treatment."

"Also, this disease is usually found in children under 15 years of age, and the symptoms of the patient are fever, headache, weakness, and fits," she added further.

Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease. The young boy is the 1st patient with the disease in Pune city, but this disease is not contagious and is caused only by the bite of certain mosquitoes, so there is no reason for Pune residents to panic, informed Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC).

South  Africa: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in the Northern and Western Cape have been confirmed by the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD). Rabbit owners are advised to practice strict biosecurity measures.

The disease resulted in high mortalities in rabbits and hares, with animals dying suddenly due to bleeding in organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen, according to a statement by the agriculture department.

This was the 1st time that RHD had been detected in South Africa, and the department was investigating the source of the outbreaks, as the importing of hares and rabbits into the country was prohibited.

Local authorities began to suspect a problem after rabbits and wild hares began dying in unusually high numbers in parts of the Northern Cape towards the end of October, and in some areas of the Western Cape in the 1st week of November.

Spain: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

The Junta [Council] de Extremadura has confirmed, through the Algente Regency National Laboratory, the detection of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) on a cattle farm in the municipality of Villanueva del Fresno in Badajoz.

After the 8 cases reported in Spain since Nov. 18 in the provinces of Cádiz, Seville, and Huelva, this would be the first detected in Extremadura.

The suspicion arose after a report to the Official Veterinary Services of the Jerez de los Caballeros region about a bovine with clinical signs compatible with the disease. After the clinical review, samples were taken for confirmation at the National Reference Laboratory.

EHD is a non-contagious infectious vector disease, transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides that affects wild and domestic ruminant animals, but doesn't affect humans.

In cattle, it can produce moderate and self-limiting symptoms for about 2 weeks. Sheep are susceptible to infection, which mostly remains subclinical. Goats are similarly susceptible. EHD seriously affects white-tailed deer and can also affect fallow deer and roe deer.

Cyprus: Avian Influenza

Health officials in the Republic of Cyprus have confirmed that 2 human cases of avian influenza have been detected on the island for the 1st time, as bird flu sweeps through a number of countries.

According to the Veterinary Services Department of the Agriculture Ministry, 2 cases of bird flu have been detected in 2 locations in Famagusta district.

While the specific strain of influenza has been detected in birds in the past on the island, this was the 1st time humans were known to have been infected in Cyprus.

Local medical expert Petros Karayiannis said infection takes place when humans are in direct contact with contaminated birds, adding that the disease is not transferred when people consume poultry.

The 2 infection locations, described as private waterfowl collections, were immediately placed under restriction and the owners of the poultry farms were instructed to take strict biosecurity measures to prevent the virus from spreading.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

The City Health Office (CHO) has recorded 141 cases of leptospirosis with 26 deaths since January. "We have a total of 26 deaths reported that gives a case fatality rate of 18 percent," Dr. Dulce Amor Miravite, CHO chief, said..

Miravite said most of the infected individuals are aged between 20 and 29, while 120, or [85%], of the 141 cases are males.

Miravite said 62 of the 141 cases were recorded after the 2-day downpour of Typhoon Paeng Oct. 27-28.. Dr. Elmeir Jade Apolinario, City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office chief, said earlier the flood affected 56 of this city's 98 barangays.

Leptospirosis is caused by the Leptospira spirochete bacteria that is spread through rat urine. Its mode of transmission includes wading in contaminated floodwaters and ingesting contaminated food or water.

Miravite said most of the cases reported were in Barangay Tumaga, Pasonanca, Guiwan, Tetuan, Tugbungan, Santa Maria, Ayala, Talon-Talon, and Tulungatung.

Czech Republic: African Swine Fever

African swine fever [ASF] has been detected in the north of the Czech Republic near the border with Poland.

The animal disease had been detected in a dead wild boar, the State Veterinary Authority (SVS) announced in Prague. The site of discovery was in the municipality of Jindrichovice pod Smrkem in the so-called Friedländer Zipfel [Frýdlant], around 25 kilometers north-east of Liberec and 35 kilometers east of the Saxon border town of Zittau [Germany].

The authority now wants to declare an infection area of around 200 square kilometers. In this exclusion zone, entering the forests is restricted and hunting wild boar is prohibited. Any animal carcasses should be examined for the disease and disposed of. The disease last appeared in the Czech Republic 4 and a half years ago, but at that time in the eastern administrative region around the industrial city of Zlin.

North Korea: African Swine Fever

Avian influenza (AI) recently struck several regions in North Korea, and the country immediately launched measures to stop the disease from spreading, Daily NK has learned.

A source in South Pyongan Province told Daily NK that there were outbreaks of AI -- also known as the "bird flu" -- at an ostrich ranch in Pyongyang's Sunan District and a chicken factory in Anju, South Pyongan Province. The authorities have begun efforts to stop further infections, he said.

The ostrich ranch and chicken factory are of particular importance because they supply side dishes to local residents and the military.

Generally speaking, when there is an outbreak of AI, authorities slaughter birds at the affected farms. The farms are also banned from distributing or processing poultry. In North Korea, provincial quarantine offices take charge of slaughtering all the birds at farms where there are outbreaks of AI.

North Korean quarantine authorities have begun quarantine efforts to stop the spread of AI, focusing on migratory bird habitats. The source said because the bird flu "usually spreads through wild birds," the authorities are "intensifying controls on migratory bird habitats."

England: Diphtheria

Seven more cases of diphtheria have been discovered among asylum seekers in Britain in a week after it was revealed a migrant who died after contracting disease had previously been discharged from hospital. New figures on diphtheria revealed by the UK Health Security Agency showed total number of cases among channel arrivals this year  is now at 57. Of those, 52 have been discovered since the beginning of October, the UKHSA said.

It comes after there were reports of fresh cases of diphtheria being found at the Manston migrant processing centre in Kent.

The UKHSA said 7 cases of diphtheria among asylum seekers were reported between Nov. 28 and Dec. 4. In the previous week,  the total was 50 after 5 cases were reported.

According to the latest report, some 44 of the cases have been recorded in the South East, as well as fewer than 5 in each of the following areas: London, West Midlands, South West, North East, and the North West. No breakdown by county has been provided.

United States: Avian Cholera

Southwest Idaho is currently experiencing a waterfowl die off that is primarily affecting light geese in Parma and surrounding areas. Staff at Fish and Game's Wildlife Health Lab believe that a recent outbreak of avian cholera is responsible for this die-off. The persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infections in migratory bird populations is also contributing to some waterfowl mortalities in the area, although it is unclear if that is the case with this specific event.

"We suspect this mortality event is related to avian cholera, a bacterial infection. We are awaiting confirmation via diagnostic testing, but field investigations have found some birds with white and yellow spotted livers and lungs, which are indicative of avian cholera," said Stacey Dauwalter, Fish and Game's Wildlife Health Program Coordinator. "We know HPAI is still being found in migrating birds, as ducks are being tested at Wildlife Management Areas across the state in a coordinated effort with USDA-Wildlife Services, and that could be a factor as well."

According to Migratory Game Bird Coordinator Jeff Knetter, mortality events like this are currently widespread.

 

December 2, 2022

Tunisia: Shigellosis

An 8 year old girl has died in Tunisia after suffering complications caused by shigella bacteria as officials warn of a wave of infections, health officials said. Tunis regional health director Tarek Ben Naceur announced the girl's death and told local radio station Mosaique FM that she was brought to the hospital too late for treatment to be effective in saving her life.

Shigella is a bacterium very similar to Escherichia coli and causes dysentery, among other health issues.

Tunisian health authorities are concerned about the shigellosis outbreak among children. They said that 69 children have become sick from shigellosis and 11 have been admitted to Bab Saadoun Children's Hospital in Tunis. "The shigella bacteria can cause death, hence the need to take the necessary precautions," Ben Naceur said. "Paying attention to hand hygiene and sterilizing vegetables and fruit before eating them is necessary to prevent contracting this bacterial infection."

Shigella infections cause diarrhoea, fever and stomach cramps. Symptoms usually begin a day or 2 after infection and last 7 days. Doctors say it is important to seek medical care at the onset of the symptoms to avoid further complications. Shigellosis can cause severe dehydration for children and can cause seizures leading to death if medical intervention is not sought in a timely manner.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

The number of deaths due to the bacterial infection, leptospirosis, has reached 370 through the end of October this year]. This is a 108% increase in deaths compared with the same period in 2021 when 178 fatalities were reported. Total leptospirosis cases are up 68% nationally with health officials reporting 2794 cases compared with 1661 last year [2021]. The Philippines has seen a case fatality rate of more than 13%.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease. People (and animals) can get infected when they are exposed to the urine of infected animals. They can also get infected from water, soil, or food contaminated with infected animal urine. Leptospirosis bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth). To reduce your individual risk, it is important to understand that exposure to animals, soil, mud, and floodwaters during work or recreational activities increases your risk of infection.

Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), red eyes, and skin rash. Without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.

Bosnia: Brucellosis

Unlike the past 2 years, when vaccines were not procured due to lack of funds, veterinarians are ending vaccination against brucellosis this year ; the number of euthanized animals in Central Bosnia has exceeded 120.

The number of sick people is also increasing. Unfortunately, few people want to talk publicly about this serious infectious disease because animal husbandry brings disease and money. However, the disease does not choose, so veterinarians and those who consume unboiled milk products also get sick.

"Most patients come in a bad condition, in wheelchairs, on crutches with already developed complications of spinal disease," points out infectious disease specialist Dr Minela Zekiri-Sivro.

Vietnam: Avian Influenza

The Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of central province of Quang Ngai  reported that the avian virus killed 2,240 ducks in 3 households and farms in November.

Right after test results showed that waterfowl in the province were positive for influenza A/H5N1 virus, Quang Ngai Sub-Department of Livestock and Veterinary Medicine coordinated with local authorities to immediately implement preventative measures to control the epidemic such as disinfection with Benkocid chemical, lime powder as well as killing 1,340 ducks in the herd.

On one breeding farm, in Mo Duc District's Duc Hoa Commune, roughly 600 ducks died. On a 2nd farm, in Duc Pho town, which raised 640 waterfowls, 300 of them were dead while 340 were killed to curb the spread of the disease. On a 3rd farm, in Quang Ngai City, 800 birds had to be killed while 200 were dead due to the avian virus. Most ducks are 28-100 days old, weighing from 1.2 kg to 2.5 kg.

United Kingdom: Diphtheria

The number of cases of diphtheria among asylum seekers who have recently arrived in the United Kingdom has risen to more than 50, the BBC understands. It comes after it was confirmed that one migrant who died after being held at Manston processing centre in Kent had contracted the disease. The man died on Nov. 19 after entering the UK on a small boat 7 days earlier.

In 2021, there were 3 of the same strain, according to government data.

Babies and children in the UK are vaccinated against diphtheria, meaning cases are rare. However, the infection is potentially dangerous to migrants who come from countries where this is not the case.

The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) says it is not known if the more than 50 people who have or have had diphtheria were infected at Manston. The body said that cases have been rising among asylum seekers across Europe and some people reported symptoms before arriving, and so could have been infected in their home country. However, the incubation period for the illness is between 2 and 5 days, with a maximum of 10 days, so infections in people who were at Manston are likely to be recent.

Cyprus: Avian Influenza

Charities say they have pulled the bodies of 66 dead swans out of the water by Windsor Castle over the last 6 days.

Bird flu is now thought to have wiped out 1/3 of the flock of royal swans on the River Thames.

There were previously around 200 of the protected birds on the 3-mile stretch of river that winds around Windsor Castle from Romney Lock to Boveney Lock near Dorney, in Berkshire.

Wendy Hermon, from the Swan Support charity, said: 'I have been looking after the royal swans for 30 years beneath the Castle and I have never seen anything like this before.

'In 2018 avian flu killed more with about 70 swans lost, but that was over about a month. This time they are dying so fast they are literally dying right in front of your eyes.

Spain: Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many regions of Spain. It is caused by the parasite Leishmania spp ., a protozoan that is most commonly transmitted by the bite of sandflies infected with the parasite. The disease has various forms, ranging from cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, to visceral leishmaniasis, which affects internal organs and is usually fatal if left untreated.

In Mediterranean countries, such as Spain, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of the disease in the national territory. The prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in Spain ranges from 2% to 57.1% depending on the geographical region, with Ourense, Lleida, Girona, Cáceres, Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, and almost all of Andalusia being the areas with the highest seroprevalence, in many cases exceeding 17% positive dogs.

In Galicia, data on the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis determine a rate of positive dogs between 1.6% and 24.3%. In recent weeks, veterinarians in the northern coastal area of Lugo have warned of an increase in the number of positive animals.

Diario Veterinario interviewed Germán Quintana, from the A Marosa Veterinary Center, with clinics in Viveiro and Burela (Lugo), who states that "in the last 30-60 days we have diagnosed 3 new cases of canine leishmaniasis in the area where previously we had been diagnosing 3-4 cases per year."

South Korea: Avian Influenza

South Korea confirmed an additional avian influenza case at a duck farm in the southern region of the country, officials said.

The case of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) strain of H5N1 was found at the duck farm located in Goheung, a southern coastal town, some 470 km south of Seoul, according to the officials.

It brought to 22 the total number of AI cases that have been reported at local poultry farms since this autumn .

Quarantine measures have been taken on the farm where some 26 000 ducks are being raised. They include access restrictions at the farm and other at-risk facilities, culling of poultry, and an epidemiological investigation, they added.

United States: Avian Influenza

A live bird market in New York City has been depopulated after avian influenza was found there.

The detection in Queens highlights an important part of the Northeast poultry industry having made great strides in combating avian influenza over the past 20 years.

Chickens, ducks, and guineas tested positive at the live market. After depopulation, the carcasses were disposed of in a sanitary manner, according to the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets. About 170 birds were killed, according to USDA, whose lab confirmed the outbreak.

The state is investigating the source of the virus. As a precaution, other New York live bird markets have been ordered to clean and disinfect, and all markets will be tested to ensure the virus has not spread, the state said.

All live bird markets in New Jersey have also been tested for avian influenza, and all were negative, the state's Ag Department said.

Argentina: Anthrax

During the course of the month of October, in a Livestock Establishment of the Carlos Casares District, there was a sporadic outbreak of bovine anthrax. The general herd consisted of 1,010 bovines, but the affected batch was that of heifers made up of 225 bovines, of which 15 died in a period of 12 days, although the animals were vaccinated (almost 11 months had elapsed).

This geographical area, during 2019, also suffered outbreaks of bovine anthrax. The acting veterinarian states that the clinical characteristics of the deaths were not the usual of anthrax since the animals examined were not showing bloodshed through natural openings or splenomegaly. This justified sending a metatarsal bone sample after the 5th death to carry out a bacteriological diagnosis from which Bacillus anthracis was isolated and identified.

The dead animals were covered with lime and nylon over them and they will remain for 260 days until the reduction of organic material is completed. Cremation will then be undergone in place of the residual cadaveric material.

United States: Equine Infectious Anemia

Officials with the N.C. Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services (NCDA) said a horse in North Carolina tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA).

According to officials, a horse in Henderson County was also tested and officials are waiting for results.

Officials said the horse in Surry County tested positive but there is no epidemiological link between the 2 cases at this time.

Equine infectious anemia is an incurable disease commonly spread by biting flies and ticks of shared medical equipment between equines such as horses, donkeys, and mules.

The disease was discovered through collaborative efforts by private veterinary practitioners, NCDA & CS Veterinary Division field staff, the N.C. Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Raleigh and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The cases mentioned above are the 1st documents in North Carolina since August 2017.

November 18, 2022

Argentina: Anthrax

A cattle ranch in Río Negro suffered an unusual death of cattle, and when they were analyzed it was found that the cause was anthrax. From the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (Senasa), the diagnosis was confirmed, so the agency provided recommendations to producers from neighboring fields, since it is an infectious disease.

Cases of animals with anthrax were detected in a property located in the Department of Conesa, province of Río Negro. Specialists warned that it is a disease that mainly affects cattle and is transmissible to both animals and people.

Spain: Anthrax

In June, 2 outbreaks of anthrax were declared in Extremadura. Now, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, the disease has reached Asturias. It is a focus in the municipality of Cangas de Onis, and has occurred in a cattle farm with 136 sensitive animals. This is the 3rd outbreak reported in Spain this year.

Unlike this outbreak, which has occurred in cattle, the outbreaks in the province of Badajoz in Extremadura occurred in sheep. In addition, this year a veterinarian contracted the disease, possibly after performing a necropsy on a cow.

In 2021, Extremadura already suffered several cases of anthrax that also affected some people. This situation led the Cáceres Veterinary College to issue an urgent statement in which they asked the region's veterinarians to take extreme precautions when carrying out necropsies on these animals.

Kazakhstan: Brucellosis

Brucellosis was found in 2 districts of the Turkestan region. Sick animals were identified during a routine examination. Their owners will be paid the due compensation for the cattle sent for slaughter, but free grazing of the rest is still prohibited to them.

In 2 villages of the Kazygurt region, 7 cows and 31 sheep were infected. In Saryagash, 14 and 24, respectively. Among the people who were in contact with animals, brucellosis was not detected.

In these farms, an additional testing of all livestock has been undertaken. Restrictive measures have been established and agricultural land and premises are being disinfected, the veterinary service of the Department of Agriculture of the Turkestan region explained.

In one large farm, where one of the infection foci is located, there are 155 heads of cattle, about 1,000 sheep and more than 100 horses. All livestock will be kept in the yard for the time being. Grazing will be allowed only after 2 consecutive negative tests.

Trinidad and Tobago: Leptospirosis

As several areas across the country battled flooding, health officials warned people against wading through floodwaters. This, as more leptospirosis cases have been reported at hospitals recently. Endocrinologist Dr Joel Teelucksingh told Guardian Media that he has noted a spike in people seeking treatment for the bacterial disease.

"This is an infection which is acquired, so from waters or soil that has become infected with dog or rat urine usually, but it may also be transmitted by pigs or cattle and disease. Bacteria enters into the skin or mucous membranes of the human being, and it lives on soil, or in water for perhaps weeks or months," Dr. Teelucksingh said.

The Ministry of Health issued a statement to advise the public to protect themselves against leptospirosis. It urged people to wear protective clothing when venturing into flood waters as well as inspect food carefully and discard any open containers, even sealed packaging such as flour or cereal.

Nigeria: Yellow Fever

The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control & Prevention (NCDC) continues to monitor reports of yellow fever cases in Nigeria and coordinates response activities through the National Multi-agency Yellow Fever Technical Working Group.

A total of 153 suspected cases were reported from 95 Local Government Areas (LGAs) across 27 states.

4 presumptive positive cases were diagnosed at the Central Public Health Laboratory Lagos (CPHL3) and Maitama District Hospital (MDH-1).

One confirmed case by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) was diagnosed by the National Reference Laboratory Abuja (NRL-1). The case was reported from Anambra.

No death was recorded among suspected and confirmed cases in the reporting month.

Canada: Legionellosis

The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit (SMDHU) has declared an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Orillia over. "We are confident that with the testing, monitoring and completion of any required cleaning and disinfection of the cooling towers that continue to operate in Orillia at this time, there is no further risk of transmission associated with this outbreak. As such, the health unit is declaring the conclusion of this outbreak," said Dr. Charles Gardner, SMDHU medical officer of health, in a press release.

The outbreak has been traced back to the Orillia Rotary Place cooling tower, where the health unit says a strain of Legionella was a genetic match with one of the 35 cases. Of the 35 infected individuals, one person has died.

The city says testing for the bacteria has been done every few days since the cooling tower resumed operations following the repair of the heat exchanger at the end of October. Although the city says the levels are not high enough to be an active risk to the community, it's decided to shut down the cooling tower until a root cause can be determined.

Kenya: Leishmaniasis

The visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, outbreak in Kenya has been continuous since 2020. A total of 2,037 visceral leishmaniasis (suspected and confirmed) cases have been reported in Marsabit, Garissa, Kitui, Baringo, West Pokot, Mandera, Wajir, and Isiolo counties, with a total of 10 deaths reported.

The outbreak is active in 4 counties, West Pokot County in Pokot North, Pokot South, and West Pokot sub-counties; Kitui County from Mwingi North and Mwingi Central sub-counties; Wajir County from Wajir East, West, South, and Eldas sub-counties; and Isiolo County. In the past week, 22 new cases were reported from West Pokot County.

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of an infected sandfly. The most common types of leishmaniasis are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores, and the visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.

Brazil: Leishmaniasis

Tocantins recorded 74 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 3 deaths from the disease between January and October this year. The data were released by the State Department of Health (SES-TO).

Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious vector-borne disease that, if left untreated, can lead to death in more than 90% of cases. One of the deaths took place in Paraíso do Tocantins and another 2 in Porto Nacional.

Another form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis, which had 250 confirmed cases in Tocantins this year. No deaths were recorded.

United States: Brucellosis

The Wyoming State Veterinarian has been notified by the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) that blood from one cow has suspect results to tests for brucellosis. Additional testing was performed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, IA. The suspect cow is located in Sublette County.

Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that causes abortion in cattle, elk, and bison and can cause serious illness in humans in the form of undulant fever. "Further diagnostic testing will be completed following necropsy of the suspect cow at the Wyoming State Diagnostic Lab," said Dr. Hallie Hasel, Wyoming State Veterinarian. It may take several weeks or longer to complete the diagnostic work-up.

The Wyoming Livestock Board is working with USDA APHIS and the herd owner to complete a whole herd brucellosis test. An epidemiologic investigation has been initiated.

Spain: Bluetongue

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA) has modified the regions affected by the restrictions against bluetongue in the provinces of Salamanca, Ávila [Castile and Leon], and Toledo [Castile-La Mancha], due to the cases recently reported in the Oropesa region (Toledo) and in that of Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca).

Among the new regions included are those of Béjar and Guijuelo, in Salamanca; the regions of Candeleda, El Barco de Ávila, Piedrahita, Navarredonda de Gredos, Arenas de San Pedro, Navaluenga, El Barraco, Sotillo de la Adrada, and Cebreros, in the province of Ávila, as well as the province of Toledo.

Bluetongue is an acute viral disease of sheep, goats, and cattle, transmitted by hematophagous dipterans, with seasonal presentation and febrile course, characterized by hyperemic-hemorrhagic lesions in the buccal mucosa, hooves, and musculature, with the development of erosions and ulcerations.

South Sudan: Anthrax

Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (VSF), an international non-governmental organization, last week started rolling out 3,400 anthrax vaccine doses for cattle and other livestock in Mayom County in Unity State, a state official said. Johnson Bol, the director general of the ministry of animal resources and fisheries in Unity State, confirmed receipt of the vaccines and said the vaccination campaign targets over 8,450 livestock.

"We have started a plan for a livestock vaccination campaign for the next year in June 2023 to vaccinate animals against anthrax," he said. "As you have heard, flooding affected animals in Mayom County and anthrax broke out 5 months ago and it was confirmed by the state ministry of health through the national laboratory. So, there is a need to vaccinate animals against anthrax."

Meanwhile, Francis Kamau, VSF's emergency response officer, said they plan to vaccinate cattle and other livestock including sheep and goats. "What we have donated is anthrax vaccines and medicine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), black quarter, and hemorrhagic septicemia," he said. "These vaccines are for animals and small ruminants."

United State: Legionellosis

A total of 5 people died of Legionnaires' disease over the summer  at a New York City nursing home that had been cited repeatedly for improper maintenance of the cooling towers where the Legionella bacteria can spread, The New York Times reported.

The outbreak at Amsterdam Nursing Home, a 409-bed facility in upper Manhattan, was the city's worst since 2015 when a cooling tower in the Bronx was blamed for an infection that caused 16 deaths.

The home has restricted water use since the outbreak that ended in September, spokesperson Jeff Jacomowitz said. "All further tests have been coming back negative, and the facility has provided bottled water for drinking and for all sanitary uses."

People can get Legionnaires' disease when they breathe in water vapor containing the Legionella bacteria, which grows in wet environments including hot tubs, fountains and cooling towers. Deaths attributed to Legionnaires' are rare, but the risk is higher for older populations such as nursing home residents.

Zimbabwe: Anthrax

A Salisbury hospital has admitted 5 people with anthrax in the past 6 weeks. One is still being treated.

The City Medical Officer of Health, Dr. JCA Davies, said 3 of the cases originated from within Mashonaland. The others were from the Midlands.

"All patients were admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital on Beatrice Road, and all except one have been sent home," he said.

Dr. Davies said anthrax came as a boil with a black centre on the skin. If it was treated promptly it causes no trouble, but if it is left septicaemia could set in.

Iran: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has claimed more lives and infected more people over the current Iranian calendar year (began on March 21), compared to the past 2 years.

Over the past 7 months, 78 people have been diagnosed with the disease, 9 of whom lost their lives, IRNA [Islamic Republic News Agency] quoted Behzad Amiri, director of the zoonotic diseases management office at the Ministry of Health, as saying.

This year, the number of deaths and cases increased in the country compared to the last 2 years.

Last year [March 2021-March 2022], 13 persons were diagnosed with Crimean-Congo fever in the country, of whom 2 died, and a year before that, Crimean-Congo fever infected 40 people and claimed 5 lives.

According to the World Health Organization, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

Cuba: Leptospirosis

Dr. Humberto Rivera Almaguer, head of the Zoonosis Program in Holguín province, warned that an increase in morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis has been observed in the territory, as a result of increased rainfall and contact with wastewater, essentially in livestock areas.

This disease is essentially transmitted by rodents, but animal husbandry can be another source of infection, through contact with the urine of infected animals such as dogs, cattle, pigs, or horses; hence the need to employ protective measures.

Among the most important clinical manifestations of this disease are fever, headache, and muscle pain, especially in the calves, vomiting, diarrhea, and general malaise.

November 12, 2022

Turkey: Bluetongue

Bluetongue disease has been detected in small ruminants [sheep] in an enterprise operating in the Baltaköy District of Aydın's Efeler district. Due to the contagious nature of the disease, the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry has started the application of quarantine in an area of approximately 10 square kilometers.

It has been learned that vaccination work started in the region by the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry, and the quarantine measures will be lifted after the work is completed.

Zambia: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax among wildlife has been reported in Kazungula district in Southern Province. District Veterinary Officer Cliff Kakandelwa disclosed that the anthrax outbreak has been reported in Sikaunzwe veterinary camp among the buffalos. Dr. Kakandelwa further stated that suspicious cattle deaths have also been reported in Kasaya area in the district.

He warned that anthrax is a deadly bacterial disease that can be transmitted from animals to people, adding that it mainly affects domestic and wild herbivores and is characterized by sudden death and bleeding from natural openings. "In order to control further spread of the disease and avert a public health catastrophe, measures have since been put in place until the outbreak is contained," Dr. Kakandelwa said.

Dr. Kakandelwa mentioned that no livestock product or animal by-product will be allowed to move out of Sikaunzwe veterinary camp and that all livestock product or animal by-product transiting through the infected area should be under veterinary escort.

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

The Mauritanian Ministry of Livestock announced that the number of confirmed cases of Rift Valley fever [RVF] in livestock has reached 305 cases in 8 regions.

In this update, 8 regions reported RVF in livestock: Guidimakha, Assaba, Adrar, Hodh el Gharbi, Hodh el Chargui, Tagant, Trarza, and Tiris Zemmour. In its daily bulletin, the ministry said that this result was obtained after the analysis of 1,567 samples.

Japan: Avian Influenza

The culling of some 1.04 million chickens at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture has begun, after the 1st avian flu cases this season in east Japan's Kanto region around Tokyo have been confirmed. The Ibaraki Prefectural Government announced that many chickens had died at a poultry farm in the city of Kasumigaura and that a genetic test confirmed they were infected with the highly pathogenic avian flu.

The prefectural government received a report from the farm and performed a simple test, whose result came back positive the following day. The prefecture has imposed restrictions on 27 poultry farms within a 10-kilometer radius of the affected farm. Ibaraki Prefecture is the largest egg producer in Japan.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

The City Health Office (CHO) has reported a 50% fatality rate of leptospirosis in Zamboanga City. Rescuers and victims of Tropical Storm Paeng are in danger of contracting leptospirosis after walking in floodwaters during the height of the storm in October.

Based on CHO records, 10 of 20 people died from the disease in the last 10 months. All of the fatalities were male.

The figure is higher than the 13 victims reported for the same period last year.

City Health Officer Dr Dulce Miravite has reminded residents to take precautionary measures days after the onslaught of Tropical Storm Paeng in Zamboanga City. The CHO distributed prophylaxis and vitamins to residents of 16 health districts whose barangays reported flooding during the height of the typhoon.

Niger: Yellow Fever

In September and October 2022, the Institut Pasteur in Dakar confirmed 4 yellow fever cases from Niger, including one death. The cases were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and were reported from Dosso, Zinder, Tahoua, and Agadez. Two probable cases were reported during the same period.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that is spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

Symptoms of yellow fever (fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches) develop 3-6 days after infection. About 12% of people infected with yellow fever virus will develop severe illness that can lead to liver disease, bleeding, shock, organ failure, yellowing skin (jaundice), and sometimes death. Among those who develop severe disease, 30-60% die.

There is no medicine to treat or cure the infection. To prevent getting sick from yellow fever, use insect repellent, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and get vaccinated.

Yemen: Diphtheria

Dhamar Governorate, central Yemen, has recorded during the past 2 weeks a remarkable increase in the number of deaths of children and infants due to infection with a new disease that doctors have not been able to accurately diagnose until now.

Medical sources in Dhamar reported that the health authorities recorded 20 mysterious deaths among children in the past few days as a result of a new and strange disease. She explained that the disease largely targets children and infants, as the affected child suffers from difficulty breathing and oxygen entering the body before death is announced within hours.

The sources indicated that Dhamar hospitals received similar cases of children suffering from difficulty breathing, as the injured fell into a coma for hours before sudden death inside the intensive care rooms.

Medical sources confirmed that the number of deaths may be large and may exceed 50 cases among children in the governorate, but most of the deaths were not recorded or reported, especially in the countryside. She explained that in the Anas district alone, nearly 12 deaths were recorded, while there were deaths in the city and the rest of Dhamar districts, according to what was reported by the news website NewsYemen.

Italy: EHD Virus

The EHD virus, the Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease of the Deer, has been identified in Sardinia. EHD is a disease similar to Blue tongue and affects ruminants. The pathogen, which spreads through culicoid insects, has been identified in some cattle from farms located in Southern Sardinia.

The discovery, by the territorial veterinary services, was confirmed by the National Reference Center for Exotic Diseases of Teramo and was at the center of the regional summit. The meeting was attended by technicians of the Regional Health Department and the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sardinia in connection with technicians of the Ministry of Health and the Reference Center of Teramo.

This is the 1st EHD outbreak detected in Europe. It has already been present for some time in North Africa, from which it could have arrived carried by insects transported to the island by the winds of the desert. "The detection of the virus" -- explains the regional health councilor, Mario Nieddu -- "once again highlights the capacity of our surveillance and monitoring system on diseases and epidemiological risk. Control measures have already started, addressing animals and insects, to verify the presence of the virus beyond the area of the outbreak."

South Africa: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

In a follow-up on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in South Africa this year, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) reported the 3rd confirmed human case in the country in 2022.

The latest case, a 36-year-old man from the Cape Winelands District fell ill on Oct. 8 and was taken to a local hospital with symptoms of fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle pain, coughing and malaise.

Later symptoms included overt bleeding, namely purpura, ecchymosis, petechiae, melaena stool and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient also had liver failure.

The patient works in an abattoir in the Cape Winelands district, and given the occupational risk and clinical picture, he was clinically diagnosed with CCHF and laboratory confirmed the next day.

Argentina: Anthrax

The National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA) received notification of cases of anthrax in animals located on a property in the Department of Conesa, near Guardia Miter, province of Río Negro.

Carbuncle, also known as Anthrax, is an infectious disease that preferentially affects bovines and is transmissible both to other animals and to humans. Animal producers are mandated to notify SENASA in the event of possible suspicion of its occurrence.

"Yesterday we received notification from a private veterinarian who assists the animal producer, so our staff began with the health protocol that is applied in these cases," reported the Animal Health coordinator of the Northern Patagonia Regional Center from SENASA, Leonardo Ripoll. "Laboratory analysis confirmed that the death of animals was caused by this disease.”

November 4, 2022

Spain:  Bluetongue

The Official Veterinary Services of the Junta de Castilla La Mancha have notified the detection of serotype 4 of the Bluetongue virus [BTV] in 2 sheep farms, located in a free zone in the Oropesa region, in the province of Toledo.

These are 2 sheep farms, in which symptoms compatible with the disease appeared and after proceeding to the official visit and sampling, positive results were obtained at the Animal Health Laboratory of the Junta de Castilla La Mancha. The samples were immediately sent to the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Algete, the national reference laboratory for Bluetongue in Spain, where the presence of BTV-4 was confirmed.

The circulation of the virus has been detected in the framework of the implementation of the bluetongue surveillance program in Spain for the year 2022. The region of Oropesa is currently considered a free zone (ZL), and given the verification of the circulation of the virus in this region, Spain's restriction zone for BTV-4 is going to be increased, by means of a Resolution that will be published in the next few days, including the counties of Oropesa, Belvis de la Jara, Talavera de la Reina, Los Navalmorales and Torrijos, in the province of Toledo.

Immediately, prevention, surveillance and control measures have been reinforced in the area and mandatory vaccination against BTV-4 will be established for all animals over 3 months of age in the ovine and bovine species in these new territories included in the ZR. Restrictions have been established on the movement of animals of species sensitive to the disease and passive surveillance has been reinforced.

Turkey: Anthrax

A man who lives in Elazig, got anthrax from the meat he bought from a butcher 9 days ago. The butcher shop where the man -- whose life was turned upside down and was fighting for his life in the hospital -- bought meat was sealed.

The man bought the meat from a butcher about 9 days ago, unaware of what was going to happen to him. After eating the meal with his family, he had wounds on his hands and body. He did not go to the hospital, thinking his wounds were acne. After going to the emergency room, he decided 3 days later to go back to the hospital with the growth of the wound.

Anthrax was detected during the examinations performed in the infection department of the Fırat University Hospital. The situation was reported to the Elazig provincial health directorate and the provincial directorate of Agriculture and Forestry. The teams took action, and anthrax was found in the examination of the meat.

Italy: Bluetongue

The bluetongue epidemic is back in Sardinia and the first measures are being taken. Until Nov. 13, animals can be transported in and out of the island only after negative results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for BT virus [BTV] serotype 3, as ordered this morning by the director of the Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Service, Antonio Montisci.

In case of positivity of even one animal, movement will be blocked. Since 2000, BTV has appeared regularly on the island, this year with serotype 3 variant for which there is still no vaccine. So far, 108 outbreaks have been recorded on the island, with 30,200 animals involved, 872 cases, 692 with clinical symptoms, and 154 deaths. The most affected part of Sardinia is the southwestern area.

"A new blow for Sardinian animal husbandry: it will be necessary to assist the livestock more by integrating the feed," notes the president of Coldiretti Sardinia, Battista Cualbu. "And this applies both to animals affected by bluetongue and to those who suffer the consequences indirectly due to the prior PCR blocking of trade. This is combined with the prices of feed doubled as well as all other costs. The PCR itself will also weigh on farms' budgets, costing 25 euros, which will certainly increase."

United States: Leptospirosis

There is an increase in the number of stranded California sea lions along the entire Oregon coast due to leptospirosis, a naturally-occurring bacteria that can also sicken dogs, people, other wildlife, and livestock.

Dogs are most at risk of getting the disease while the risk to people is small. Dog and horse owners should discuss the merits of vaccination for leptospirosis with their veterinarian. ODFW and Oregon Parks and Recreation urge beachgoers to leash their dogs and keep at least 150 feet away from live or dead sea lions.

The disease can spread when an animal or person is in contact with urine or other bodily fluids of an infected or dead sea lion.

Leptospirosis outbreaks occur sporadically in marine mammals. Outbreaks can result in increased strandings and mortalities among sea lions. The Oregon Marine Mammal Stranding Network documented over 150 sick or dead sea lions along the Oregon coast since the current outbreak began in late July 2022. Necropsies on 7 sea lions confirmed all tested positive for leptospirosis.

Ethiopia: Malaria

Scientists have linked an invasive mosquito to an unusual outbreak of malaria in Ethiopia. Anopheles stephensi, native to southern Asia, was first identified in Africa a decade ago in the Republic of Djibouti, which borders Ethiopia. It has since spread to at least 4 other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Now, amid lingering questions about whether the insect's presence is significantly driving cases of malaria on the continent, researchers have confirmed that people infected in an uncommon dry season outbreak of the disease were more likely to have the mosquito living close to their homes.

The find, reported Nov. 1 at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) meeting in Seattle, is the most direct evidence yet that ties the invasive insect to increasing malaria cases, says Martin Donnelly, an evolutionary geneticist at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) who was not involved in the study. "It is a big step forward" in understanding how An. stephensi is likely to make malaria much more difficult to control in Africa, where it kills more than half a million people each year, most of them children under age 5.

Unlike most of the mosquitoes in Africa that transmit the parasites that cause malaria, An. stephensi is a city dweller. Most African mosquitoes lay their eggs in rainy-season puddles, but it thrives in artificial water sources such as cisterns and barrels of clean drinking water. That enables the insect to stay active during dry seasons, which traditionally provide a respite from the disease.

Italy: Listeriosis                        

At least 90 people have been affected and 3 have died in a major Listeria outbreak in Italy.

The Ministry of Health (Ministero della Salute) said the most recent patient was reported in mid-September. Deaths occurred in December, March and in Lombardy, Piedmont, and Emilia Romagna. The patients were immune-compromised or particularly vulnerable to infection. One woman lost her baby in the outbreak. Patients live in Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Liguria, Umbria, Tuscany, Calabria, Lazio, Puglia, Valle D'Aosta and Abruzzo.

The Ministry of Health created an outbreak working group, which includes the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità), National Reference Laboratories, and regional agencies that met in August and made official in September.

There are also sporadic cases in other countries but the major burden is in Italy, where recalls and investigations have been undertaken, said the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

Algeria: Leishmaniasis

The DSP prevention services indicated that during the 8 months of the current year, 192 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded in the wilaya of Naâma, a sharp decline compared to previous years.

The largest number was recorded in Aïn-Sefra with 44 cases, followed by Mécheria with 25 cases, while in some municipalities, the number of people affected varies between 5 to 8 cases, if not negligible for other municipalities.

This decline reflects the efforts and campaigns carried out on the ground, following the instructions of the public authorities concerned about the very high number of cases in the wilaya. An improvement therefore in the situation compared to the period from 2009 to 2015, when the number fluctuated between 600 and more than 700 cases per year.

October 29, 2022

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

Between Aug. 30 and Oct. 17, a total of 47 confirmed cases of Rift Valley fever (RVF), mostly among animal breeders, including 23 deaths, have been reported from 9 of Mauritania's 15 regions. Circulation of the virus that causes RVF in small ruminants, camels, and cattle has been confirmed in 8 regions. Altogether, 12 have reported confirmed human or animal cases, including 9 that share borders with 3 neighboring countries -- Mali, Senegal, and Algeria. A One Health approach is being used to manage the epidemic response.

There has been a constant circulation of RVF virus in Mauritania with the country experiencing previous outbreaks in 1987, 2010, 2012, 2015, and 2020. Regional spread of the outbreak cannot be ruled out given the proliferation of the vector in the majority of regions, the animal density, and high human population and animal movement to neighboring countries.

England: Diphtheria

A diphtheria outbreak affecting a "small" number of people at Manston Processing Center has been confirmed by the Home Office.

The former Fire Training and Development Center at Manston has been used since January for processing people that arrive in the country seeking asylum through "irregular" routes following the closure of Dover's Tug Haven short-term immigration detention facilities. The purpose of the center is to carry out security and identity checks.

But the site hit the headlines earlier this month when the POA [Prison Officers Association] trade union, which represents members who work on contracts supporting Immigration Services and Border Force Officers, raised concerns about the conditions and delays at the center.

The union said the target of holding people for 24-48 hours was "purely aspirational" with people actually detained for a week or more due to the large number of people brought to the site last month. Members also reported incidents of police being called to altercations and the center running out of food and drinking water. The site was expected to accommodate around 1,000 people but the Guardian reports some 3,000 are thought to currently be there.

United States: Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Michigan animal health officials announced the first case of eastern equine encephalitis in a 3-year-old horse just across the Michigan-Indiana border.

According to Indiana's Board of Animal Health, horse owners in Indiana should be aware of the disease.

Indiana had no reported cases of EEE last year. However, the disease can pop any time, any place.

"Horses are not the only ones at risk of eastern equine encephalitis," according to a BOAH statement. "Like the more common West Nile virus, EEE can infect people and cannot be directly transmitted from infected horses to other horses or humans.

Signs of EEE include listlessness, high fever, head pressing, seizures and coma. Horses that develop it rarely survive. The virus is maintained in the bird population and is transmitted by mosquitoes breeding in freshwater wetlands.

United States: Bluetongue

A rare deadly deer disease was confirmed in New York State.

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) confirmed 3 deer tested positive for a rare virus.

The 3 deer were all found in Southampton, Suffolk County. All tested positive for bluetongue (BT). This marks the 1st time the bluetongue virus was detected in New York deer, officials say. It was also detected in several other mid-Atlantic coast states this year.

Bluetongue virus is closely related to the epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus and is transmitted in the same way.

"EHD virus and BT virus are often fatal to deer. They are transmitted by biting midges, small bugs often called "no-see-ums." EHD and BT outbreaks are most common in late summer and early fall when midges are abundant. Diseases caused by the viruses are usually not spread directly from deer to deer, and humans cannot be infected by deer or bites from midges," the DEC states.

Signs in deer include fever, difficulty breathing, dehydration, swelling of the head, neck and tongue, attraction to water and rapid death.

United States: Strangles

On Oct. 19, the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development confirmed an unvaccinated 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding in Ionia County is recovering from strangles. This is the 2nd confirmed case of strangles on the premises, with the original case occurring in August.

Strangles in horses is an infection caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and spread through direct contact with other equids or contaminated surfaces. Horses that aren't showing clinical signs can harbor and spread the bacteria. Recovered horses remain contagious for at least 6 weeks, with the potential to cause outbreaks long-term.

Venezuela; Tuberculosis

The Barinas Veterinary College has put out a warning about the presence of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in municipal and industrial slaughterhouses in Barinas.

The union indicates it does not handle figures, but assures it has learned of the outbreak of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis through unofficial sources, workers in slaughterhouses and cold storage facilities, and through some records kept by the union members who participate in the national vaccination campaign for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease, whose 2nd phase began last weekend and ends on Dec. 15.

The president of the college, Carlip Rojas, points out in a note sent to El Pitazo, that he personally knows of slaughterhouses where veterinarians have shown him images of tuberculosis cases. He calls for the Sanitary Comptroller and the National Institute of Agricultural and Integral Security (Insai) to face this matter of public health. "These are diseases of mandatory reporting and as such the ranchers must report them", he stressed.

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease of animals, caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which occasionally affects other mammalian species, reports the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH).

Uganda: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Soroti Regional Referral Hospital isolated a patient confirmed to have Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus. The patient is a woman from Aprikila Sub County in Kaberamaido District.

She had been admitted to Soroti Regional Referral Hospital after a referral from Kaberamaido Hospital where she was taken to treat a headache and stomachache earlier in the week.

"While in Kaberamaido, we were told that her condition needed further management and she was referred to Soroti Regional Referral Hospital. It is from Soroti that we started hearing about the disease," one of the nephews said.

The Crimean-Congo fever virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals, while according to medics, human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of an infected person.

The fever presents with headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, and vomiting. The patient may also show reddish eyes, a flushed face, a red throat, and red spots on the palate, according to information from the Ministry of Health website. Outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%, yet there is no vaccine available for either people or animals.

United States: Avian Influenza

Highly pathogenic avian influenza took a warm, 3-month-long break but has returned to Wisconsin.

The Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection says the most recent case was confirmed Oct. 14 and is a backyard flock of 7 birds in St. Croix County.

Another 115 birds were depopulated from a non-commercial flock in Washington County in August. DATCP says 70,000 turkeys were depopulated from 2 commercial farms in Dunn County after the disease was detected and 10,000 ducks were depopulated from 2 commercial farms in Racine County after HPAI was found.

The agency is asking people working around poultry to use enhanced biosecurity practices and keep the birds indoors to avoid exposure to wild birds if possible.

Spain: Avian Influenza

On Oct. 18, the regional health authorities of Galicia in Spain reported an outbreak of avian influenza A(H5N1) in a mink farm in the province of A Coruña. Mink in the farm were tested following regular surveillance procedures after the occurrence of sick mink in the farm with respiratory symptoms and an unusual increase in deaths of the animals. Mink were tested for several diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. Two samples tested positive for avian influenza A(H5N1).

Avian influenza A(H5N1) has recently been detected in Spain in domestic and wild birds. Strict measures were immediately implemented on the farm by the official veterinary services. Following a public health risk assessment by Spanish authorities, mink were culled in the farm that kept 8,369 breeding females and 43,617 weaned offspring, and the farm premises were cleaned and disinfected. As a precautionary measure, the Ministry of Rural Affairs initiated surveillance of poultry and mink farms located around the affected farm. Among other measures, it will be prohibited to keep concentrations of birds and the release of hunting birds for repopulation.

Spain: West Nile Virus

The Junta de Andalusia reported the detection of the first outbreak of West Nile Virus this year in the community. So far, it has affected 2 horses located in the Cadiz municipality of Tarifa. According to the administration, the outbreak was declared on Oct. 17.

At around the same date last year, the 9th and last outbreak was detected, which affected 10 horses. In 2020, there were 32 outbreaks in Andalusia, mainly in the municipalities of Sevilla, Cadiz, and Huelva.

On Sept. 26, the first positive case of West Nile Virus was registered in a person in the Andalusia autonomous community. It was in an 89-year-old woman, a resident of the Cadiz municipality of Vejer de la Frontera. A day later, they announced the detection of the virus in wild birds in the same area.

China: Avian Influenza

The Center for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is closely monitoring a human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in the Mainland, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The case involves a 3-year-old boy living in Nanning, Guangxi. He is in serious condition.

Since 2014, 81 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported by Mainland health authorities.

"All novel influenza A infections, including H5N6, are notifiable infectious diseases in Hong Kong," a spokesman for the CHP said.

Travellers to the Mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets or farms. They should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry, and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry.

Japan: Japanese Encephalitis

Kumamoto Prefecture announced on that a woman in her 70s who lived under the jurisdiction of the Kikuchi Public Health Center died of Japanese encephalitis. This is the first death in the prefecture since 2006. The prefecture and Kumamoto City also announced that a man in his 70s in the jurisdiction of the same public health center and a man in his 30s in Kumamoto City were also infected. This is the first time in 8 years that the disease has been reported in the prefecture, bringing the total number of cases nationwide this year to 5.

According to the prefectural health crisis management division, the deceased woman in her 70s was rushed to the hospital after complaining of fatigue, fever, and difficulty moving. She died on Sept. 14, and subsequent tests confirmed the infection.

A man in Kumamoto City visited a medical institution in the city after complaining of disturbed consciousness. For about a month, he continued to need a ventilator, and he was found to be infected. He is still in the hospital and his health status has been said to be non-life-threatening, even though the prefecture of the jurisdiction of the Kikuchi Public Health Center has not made it public.

Japanese encephalitis is an infectious disease transmitted by Culex pipiens, a mosquito that sucks the blood of pigs infected with the virus. It is not contagious from person to person, most of them are asymptomatic, and the disease occurs in 1 in 100 to 1,000 people. There are many aftereffects such as high fever, convulsions, and disturbance of consciousness.

Bulgaria: Avian Influenza

Bulgaria's Food Safety Agency reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) type A virus at a commercial farm.

The virus was detected on a farm for laying hens in the village of Krivo Pole, in Haskovo [Khaskovo] region, the agency said in a statement.

Measures have been taken immediately to eradicate the outbreak, and a total of 19,000 hens on the farm will be culled, it said.

This is the 3rd bird flu outbreak at the same farm over the past 3 years, said the agency.

Italy: Bluetongue

The bluetongue disease [BT] nightmare returns to Sardinia.

According to Coldiretti data, 12,000 animals are already involved, 11 dead, 7 active outbreaks, 28 suspected and 32 resolved, with data unfortunately continuously updated.

Active outbreaks are found in the lower Oristano area and in Ogliastra. The suspects are mainly in Sulcis, while many of those already extinct were found in north-central Sardinia and in particular in the western part.

Last year, more than 30,000 sheep died and more than 1 million were involved.

The Region under pressure from Coldiretti Sardinia in the end allocated 7.1 million euros [about $7.07 million] which have not yet arrived in the pockets of the shepherds despite the fact that the Agricultural Organization had presented a system that would have made it possible to liquidate the practices in a few weeks.

South Korea: Avian Influenza

South Korea on Oct. 19 confirmed a highly pathogenic avian influenza, or bird flu, case at a duck farm for the 1st time in about 6 months.

The case was first reported at the farm in the southeastern county of Yecheon, 165 km [102 mi] southeast of Seoul, and the authorities confirmed the highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 earlier in the day, Yonhap News Agency quoted the Agricultural Ministry as saying.

Prime Minister Han Duck-soo ordered the authorities to cull poultry within a 500 m [0.3 mi] radius of the farm as part of precautionary measures to stop the highly contagious viral disease from spreading.

The country last reported a bird flu case in April this year.

Upon the report, the authorities cordoned off the farm and have implemented quarantine measures, including the culling of some 9,800 ducks as a preventive step, the Ministry said.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

Three patients with suspected cutaneous anthrax were admitted to a hospital in Kadamjai district. Three are suspected to have contracted anthrax after they were exposed to infected meat.

One of them is a meat seller. Another is the cattle owner, who slaughtered the ill cow. The third was involved in the slaughtered cow's meat cutting.

Germany: Tuberculosis

Bovine tuberculosis is a notifiable animal disease that can also be transmitted to humans and pets (for example, if products are eaten raw). For years there have only been isolated cases of the disease in Germany but is now in the Wartburg district.

In Thuringia there is a case of bovine tuberculosis. According to the Ministry of Health, an animal owner in the Wartburg district is affected. The disease was officially diagnosed in one of his cattle after slaughter.

In the slaughterhouse, it was noticed that the lymph nodes in the cattle had changed noticeably. According to the ministry, an analysis of organ samples sent in showed that the animal was infected with tuberculosis bacteria. Now the entire livestock of the company should be examined. If further infections are found, the cattle would have to be killed.

Bovine tuberculosis can cause tuberculosis in humans. According to the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), transmission to humans, for example through the consumption of milk or meat, is possible if the products are consumed raw.

Spain:  Bluetongue

The Official Veterinary Services of the Junta de Castilla La Mancha have notified the detection of serotype 4 of the Bluetongue virus [BTV] in 2 sheep farms, located in a free zone in the Oropesa region, in the province of Toledo.

These are 2 sheep farms, in which symptoms compatible with the disease appeared and after proceeding to the official visit and sampling, positive results were obtained at the Animal Health Laboratory of the Junta de Castilla La Mancha. The samples were immediately sent to the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Algete, the national reference laboratory for Bluetongue in Spain, where the presence of BTV-4 was confirmed.

The circulation of the virus has been detected in the framework of the implementation of the bluetongue surveillance program in Spain for the year 2022.

October 21, 2022

Mongolia: Lumpy Skin Disease

A total of 1,746 cases of lumpy skin disease in cattle have been reported in Mongolia so far this year, and 1,255 of them have been slaughtered, local media reported.

So far, the eastern province of Sukhbaatar and southern provinces of Dundgovi and Dornogovi have been quarantined due to the disease, said the report, citing the country's General Authority for Veterinary Services.

Lumpy skin disease is a viral infection of cattle characterized by fever, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and multiple nodules on the skin and mucous membranes.

The livestock sector is a main pillar of the Mongolian economy with around 70 million heads of livestock in the country with a population of around 3.4 million.

Vietnam: African Swine Fever

As many as 1,000 pigs died in Vietnam this past summer after receiving the 1st commercial vaccine to prevent African Swine Fever (ASF). The exact number of pig deaths is likely between 750 and 1,342 according to the news service Vietnamnews.

The pigs, on a farm in the central province of Phu Yen and at least 2 other provinces, received the NAVET-ASFVAC vaccine, co-developed by the Vietnamese Navetco company and the U.S. Agricultural Research Institute (ARS), which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). One pig farmer in Hoa Thinh Dong Commune in Phu Hoa District, said that a few days after receiving the vaccine, all his healthy pigs developed fever and hemorrhages; many died.

ASF, a highly contagious, double-stranded DNA virus, causes hemorrhagic fever and death in pigs but does not affect humans. The virus is circulating now in 73 countries, including in the Dominican Republic and Haiti -- U.S. neighbors -- though it's not yet in the U.S.

According to Farm Progress, a study conducted by Iowa State University showed that an ASF outbreak in the U.S. would be devastating. It would immediately close international markets to U.S. pork and lower U.S. live hog prices by 40%-50%.

Congo: Yellow Fever

There are 7 suspected cases of yellow fever reported in the health zone of Kamonia, more precisely in the cities of Kamako and Kandjaji, located on the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola, in the territory of Tshikapa (Kasai).

This is according to the head of the National Border Hygiene Program (PNHF), Christian Mabed:

"We have already counted 7 suspected cases of yellow fever in the health areas of Kamako and Kandjaji in the health zone of Kamonia. Most of the suspect cases are people from Angola," he noted.

Samples have been taken and sent to the National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB) to confirm or rule out the cases.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that is spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

United States: Avian Influenza

Avian influenza has recently been confirmed in some birds that are part of Lake Tobias Wildlife Park in Pennsylvania, the park announced.

The infected birds are part of a collection housed in an indoor enclosure, not accessible to the public, the park said. Park spokeswoman Jan Tobias-Kieffer said in a news release that officials at the Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic Services of the USDA in Harrisburg determined no widespread euthanasia of zoo birds will be required.

Nationally, a highly contagious strain of avian influence has affected more than 47 million birds. Avian influenza is a disease caused by an infection with avian influenza Type A viruses. It is naturally spread by wild aquatic birds and can infect domestic poultry.

In Pennsylvania, as of Oct. 5, the USDA reported 18 commercial flocks and 3 backyard flocks were affected in the recent outbreak.

Australia: Leptospirosis

Dog owners are being warned about rising cases of leptospirosis as Australia faces a nationwide vaccine shortage to fight the deadly disease. Cases of Leptospirosis, a bacterial infection transmitted via rat urine and faeces which is potentially fatal to humans, have been detected in NSW, Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT) in recent months.

Leptospirosis can kill pets in just 48 hours. It causes organ failure, swelling of the brain and hemorrhages.

Dog owners are being urged to contact their local veterinarian to see whether they're in a leptospirosis 'hotspot' and to have their pets vaccinated. Owners should also check their pets for signs which include lethargy, vomiting, gastroenteritis, diarrhea and jaundiced or yellow gums.

The warning comes amid a shortage of the Protech C2i vaccine which protects dogs from the virus.

Spain: Bluetongue

On Oct. 14, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Rural Development activated measures prescribed by the protocol following the detection of bluetongue, caused by BTV serotype 4, in a sheep farm in the municipality of Ciudad Rodrigo, in Salamanca. Until now, the area was considered to have the status of a free zone for this disease. After sampling, followed by confirmation of the disease, the farm and the cattle and sheep within a 50 km [31 mi] radius of the outbreak have been put under movement restrictions according to the guidelines of the health protocol.

The protocol also indicates that compulsory vaccination should be carried out in this perimeter along with voluntary vaccination within a radius of 100 km [62 mi] around the positive focus. In addition, the transport of cattle to the slaughterhouse is allowed for all the herds; the movements of animals for other purposes are allowed for PCR-negative animals.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, there are 260,000 cattle susceptible to vaccination and 110,000 sheep, making a total of 370,000 livestock. The vaccination teams of the official veterinary service of the Ministry are prepared to start vaccinating the animals next week, as indicated by the said department. It is planned to allocate 4 teams for the vaccination of sheep and another 24 teams for cattle within 50 days, covering 5 affected veterinary units: Ciudad Rodrigo, Sequeros, Tamames, La Fuente de San Esteban, and Lumbrales. In addition, throughout the restriction zone, visits, census, and verification of clinical symptoms are being carried out. Farmers have been advised to take extreme biosecurity measures. Sources from the Ministry recalled that the potential for transmission of this virus to man is zero.

China: Plague

Two Tibetans have died from pneumonic plague (a disease carried by mice and other rodents) in a southern county of Tibet. Chinese authorities are now ordering county residents to stay at home, local media reported. The 2 victims, who lived in Lhoka city in Lhoka prefecture's Tsona county, died in September, a source living in the region told RFA, adding that no one has been publicly identified. "Moreover, people are not allowed to discuss it," the source said, requesting anonymity in order to speak freely. "But we have learned that the 2 individuals had been helping someone else showing symptoms of the plague. One of them died at a hospital in Tsona county," the source added.

A strict lockdown is now in force in Tsona, with county residents being told not to leave their homes, the source said, RFA reported. "And authorities are warning people not to talk openly about this issue, saying they will be charged with spreading rumors if they are caught." A statement by the Disease Control Center of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and other official Chinese reports has confirmed 1 of the 2 deaths so far, saying the individual died after developing breathing difficulties and a high fever. When reached for comment, the staff at the Tsona county's Public Office also confirmed one death but declined to provide further details of the plague's spread or the number of people now infected.

Sweden: Newcastle Disease

Several private individuals in Visby have reported to the County Board of Gotland that they have found sick and dead pigeons. After analysis at the State Veterinary Institute, SVA, they have concluded that the pigeons were infected with pigeon plague. The disease can also infect domestic birds.

If domestic poultry become ill, the disease can turn into Newcastle disease, a contagious and serious disease that must be reported to a veterinarian.

Infected birds do not have to die, but they may stop laying eggs or lay abnormally shaped eggs or eggs with a soft shell, the county administrative board writes on its website.

Pakistan: Malaria

From January through August, more than 3.4 million suspected cases of malaria were reported in Pakistan compared with the 2.6 million suspected cases reported in 2021. Over 170,000 cases were laboratory confirmed, with the majority reported as Plasmodium vivax. A rapid upsurge in cases was observed in Balochistan and Sindh provinces after the devastating floods in mid-June 2022, together accounting for 78% of all confirmed cases. The risk is assessed as very high considering the current flood crisis affecting the capacity of the national health system.

Malaria is endemic in Pakistan. Between January and August 2022, over 3.4 million suspected cases of malaria were reported in Pakistan compared with the 2.6 million reported over the course of 2021. Over 170,000 cases were laboratory confirmed, of which 77% are due to Plasmodium vivax, and 23% due to Plasmodium falciparum, which is associated with the most severe and fatal cases.

Pakistan was hit by devastating floods in June 2022, which resulted in over 33 million people being affected, 81 districts being declared as calamity hit, and the health infrastructure being badly impacted.

A rapid upsurge in reported malaria cases was observed after the floods. In Sindh province, confirmed malaria cases in August 2022 reached 69,123 compared to 19,826 cases reported in August 2021.

Honduras: Leptospirosis

According to data from the Ministry of Health, of the 146 suspected cases of leptospirosis registered so far this year in Honduras, 36 cases were laboratory-confirmed.

The areas with the cases are Metropolitan Central District, Metropolitan San Pedro Sula, Atlántida, Comayagua, Cortés, Choluteca, El Paraíso, Gracias a Dios, La Paz, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Valle, and Yoro.

The most frequent mode of transmission is by contact with blood, tissues, organs, and urine of infected animals and rarely by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Leptospira can penetrate skin that has been submerged in water for a prolonged period, with an incubation period of 5 to 14 days, with an interval of 2 to 30 days.

Health authorities called on the population to clean their surroundings to avoid the refuge of rodents, which transmit the disease, mainly in areas that recently suffered flooding due to the rains.

Cuba: Leptospirosis

At least 5 cases of leptospirosis have been confirmed so far this year in Ciego de Ávila, according to authorities from that province in the center of the island.

In the territory, 12 cases have been seen with symptoms suggestive of the bacterial disease of zoonotic origin, although only 5 have been confirmed, and the results of tests from 3 patients that are being analyzed at the Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine in Havana are still awaited. Dr Manuel Álvarez Ramírez, a specialist at the Provincial Center for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (CPHEM), pointed out in the official media outlet Invasor.

He also pointed out that the most likely source of infection in the territory is contact with the contaminated urine of livestock and rodents as well as with contaminated soil or vegetation.

The groups at greatest risk in this province are agricultural and livestock workers, veterinarians, Community Services workers, plus the population living in flood zones, added José Luis López González, deputy director of the CPHEM.

October 14, 2022

Latvia: African Swine Fever

African swine fever was detected in 16 wild boars in Latvia in late September, according to the information released by the Food and Veterinary Service. African swine fever was also detected in 4 wild boars in Gulbene [municipality]: 2 wild boars in Litene parish, 1 in Dauksti parish, and 1 in Stradi parish

In the wild boar population, African swine fever was detected in a total of 872 wild boars in 29 counties in 192 parishes in Latvia this year.

African swine fever in Latvia was registered for the 1st time in June 2014, in 3 wild boars, a few meters from the border with Belarus. It is a very dangerous disease, and the entire herd must be slaughtered in a house where the disease is found. In 2022, African swine fever also affected 6 farms with a total of 1,512 domestic pigs.
Canada: Legionellosis

There is a cluster of Legionnaire's disease in Orillia, Ontario. A total of 19 cases of Legionnaires' disease have been discovered in people who reside in or have visited the City of Orillia in recent weeks. The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit (SMDHU) is currently investigating the outbreak, said Dr. Charles Gardner, medical officer of health for SMDHU.

"We have had these cases reported to us very recently, indicating the need to investigate and to take steps to reduce the risk of further transmission," said Gardner. "The health unit is looking for a source of the bacteria, and healthcare providers in the community are being notified to watch and test for potential cases."

Legionnaires' disease is a lung disease caused by Legionella bacteria, which are commonly found in natural freshwater environments. However, it can become a health concern in water systems, such as cooling towers, plumbing systems in large buildings, humidifiers, hot tubs and spas and decorative fountains when conditions allow the bacteria to multiply.

Canada: Avian Influenza

Niagara Region Public Health is investigating a confirmed report of H5N1 avian influenza in a mixed flock of birds including chicken, geese and ducks. Niagara Region Public Health is working closely with the Ontario Ministry of Health, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to monitor and respond to the situation.

"Only those working on the farm with the birds are at any risk, and Public Health has followed up with each of them individually," said Dr. Joanne Kearon, Resident Physician working with Niagara Region Public Health. "We are working with our provincial and federal partners to contain the infection so that it doesn't spread to any other birds, and in turn doesn't pose a risk to anyone else."

Avian influenza is a viral disease that affects mostly domestic poultry and wild birds such as geese, ducks, and shore birds. Spread of the virus from animals to humans is uncommon but has been observed. The exact mode of transmission from birds to people is not known; however, most human cases of avian influenza have been traced to direct contact with live or dead infected poultry or their droppings.

South Africa: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

South African health officials report a 2nd Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) case in the country this year in a 32-year-old man from Burgersdorp, Eastern Cape Province. The first was a fatal case of CCHF reported from the Western Cape Province.

Prior to falling ill, the patient was working in different areas in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces. A tick bite was identified as the source of infection. It is noted that the patient is involved with culling operations on farms and reserves, so exposure to the virus through contact with raw meat or blood of infected wildlife is also a possibility.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was confirmed on Sept. 10. The patient was hospitalized in Free State province.

During his hospitalization, bleeding gums, bone marrow venipuncture hemorrhage, severe thrombocytopenia and hematoma were recorded. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40%.

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

In a follow-up on the human Rift Valley fever (RVF) situation in the African country of Mauritania, the country's health ministry reported 4 additional human cases and one more fatality.

This brings the number of cases reported to 32 and 17 deaths caused by RVF.

Out of 145 total tests performed, in addition to the RVF cases, 2 cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) were reported. One of the cases died from the viral infection.

Rift Valley Fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that causes illness in animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels).

Most people with RVF have either no symptoms or a mild illness with fever, weakness, back pain, and dizziness. A small percentage (8-10%) of people with RVF develop much more severe symptoms, including eye disease, hemorrhage (excessive bleeding), and encephalitis (swelling of the brain).

Ukraine: Diphtheria

An outbreak of diphtheria was registered in one of the children's boarding houses in the Lviv region, where people who have been disabled since childhood are also housed.

"During the planned preventive examination of the wards of the boarding school, signs of the initial stage of diphtheria were found in 7 of them. All of them were hospitalized at the Lviv Regional Infectious Disease Clinical Hospital," the message reads.

Specialists of the Lviv Regional Center for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a selection of material for bacteriological examination from 165 contact persons. Their vaccination status is also being studied.

Disinfection of boarding school premises and chamber disinfection of personal belongings were carried out. An epidemiological investigation is ongoing. Samples for further bacteriological studies will be sent to the reference laboratory of the Public Health Center.

Avian Influenza: Netherlands

Following a continued spike in new HPAI outbreaks, an order was introduced to keep poultry and captive birds housed specified areas of eastern England. This was announced by the agriculture department, Defra, on Oct. 8.

As an extension to the avian influenza prevention zone (AIPZ) measures introduced in this area last month [September 2022], affected owners are urged to make preparations for the more stringent measures in the coming days.

it will be mandatory for all bird owners in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and parts of Essex to keep poultry and captive birds confined in houses. Furthermore, stricter biosecurity procedures must be followed.

Under the previous AIPZ, there were requirements to restrict access to farms for nonessential visitors, disinfect vehicles regularly, and ensure workers changed clothing and footwear before entering bird enclosures.

Niger: Diphtheria

An outbreak of diphtheria in southeastern Niger has killed 5 children, the African country's Ministry of Health reported, encouraging parents to vaccinate their children against this disease.

The outbreak, the note indicates, began in Gouré, within the Zinder region, and was perceived by the local population as a new disease, which led the ministry to release the statement clarifying that it is diphtheria. "This is not a new disease," says the ministry, but an ailment, diphtheria, "that rages from time to time in Africa" and attacks "especially children who are not vaccinated."

Since the outbreak of the epidemic in the town, Health reports that 29 cases have been registered, of which 5 children have died because, says the note, "the parents did not quickly take the patients to the health center" to receive the proper care.

"The 24 cases admitted to the Gouré health center are currently undergoing treatment and 7 of them are already cured. The other 17 continue to be treated and their health is progressing well," says the note, announcing the launch of a vaccination campaign against the disease in the area to benefit children between 1 and 15 years of age.

Canada: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A large number of deaths of feral domestic rabbits has occurred in Calgary, and this time, it's in Nose Hill Park.

Local veterinarians are raising the alarm about the 1st time a highly contagious disease has made the jump to a wild rabbit in the city.
France: Leptospirosis

A resident of Villabon, near Bourges, died of leptospirosis, also known as "rat disease". The 56-year-old man died at the end of September. He had taken part a few days earlier in the cleaning out of a stream and it seems he was infected by rat or nutria urine.

This disease affects around 600 people a year in France, and only 5 to 10% of cases are fatal, even though it's not clear why some patients develop a very severe form. Since 2014, the number of cases of leptospirosis has doubled in France. This might in part because the disease is better diagnosed today, in particular thanks to PCR tests, as for COVID-19.

The symptoms are comparable to those of the flu: "We know very well how to treat it with basic antibiotics," says Dr. Yves Guimard, infectious disease specialist at the Bourges hospital center. "Amoxicillin, in particular, works very well. " The problem is that sometimes people have very serious reactions, and despite antibiotic therapy, have serious forms. With infectious diseases, moreover we also see this with COVID-19, some people will present very weak symptoms and others, on the contrary, within the same family, will be severely affected without anyone really knowing why. The reaction varies greatly from one person to another."

Romania: Anthrax

A 37-year-old man from Alba is suspected of having anthrax and was admitted for observation and treatment. His life is out of danger. The diagnosis will be confirmed or denied by more detailed laboratory analyses. The first analysis performed indicated the presence of the Bacillus anthracis that causes the anthrax disease.

The Department of Epidemiology within DSP Alba, in collaboration with DSVSA Alba, is conducting an investigation on this case, and the first data indicates the disease might have been contracted from the animals (sheep) that the man raises in his household. The man presented himself at a hospital in the county for thorough investigations by indication of the family doctor who noticed an old wound, with unfavorable evolution on the patient's left-hand pinky finger. The last case of anthrax was registered in Alba County approximately 7 years ago.

September 30, 2022

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

The Fresno County Department of Public Health (FCDPH) confirmed Sept. 23 the 1st positive case and death of the year from St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) in Fresno County.

The virus is a mosquito-borne disease that can produce inflammation of the brain.

SLE is contracted by humans from infected mosquitoes and originates from an avian illness, which is then spread after a mosquito bites an infected bird.

The virus has been found in California in the past, however, since the introduction of West Nile Virus to California in 2003, the SLE virus has been less commonly detected.

"This positive case and unfortunate death is a strong reminder that everyone should take preventative measures to protect themselves and their families from mosquito bites in order to prevent vector-borne diseases," said Fresno County Interim Health Officer Dr. Rais Vohra in a news release.

Iran: Anthrax

The head of the Nazarabad Veterinary Department announced the release of 20 dead cows suffering from symptomatic anthrax in the desert of the city.

Adel Mirzapour, the head of the Nazarabad Veterinary Department, said: "The experts of the Veterinary Department, while visiting the livestock farms of the city, noticed that the carcasses of 20 dairy cows were abandoned in one of the deserts of the Nazarabad city by one of the traditional livestock farms."

The Head of the Nazarabad Veterinary Department added that: "It was found with the follow-ups that the disease symptoms of the abandoned livestock were of anthrax, that is why immediate action was taken to carry out vaccinations, health measures and active and passive care (surveillance) of the livestock in the livestock farms located within a radius of 3 kilometers from the said livestock farm.

He said that, in addition, with the follow-ups, the carcasses were buried in a sanitary manner and the aforementioned rancher was introduced to the judicial authorities.

Brazil: Yellow Fever

The State Secretariat of Health (SESA) confirmed the first death of a monkey from yellow fever in Paraná in the epidemiological period 2022-2023. No deaths were recorded in humans in the period. The bulletin was released on Sept. 21.

According to the agency, the identification in the capuchin monkey occurred in the municipality of Fernandes Pinheiros, in the central region of the state.

SESA also explained that this confirms the circulation of the virus in Paraná and stressed that monkeys do not transmit yellow fever. The instruction is that the population should not harm monkeys and they should contact the municipal health surveillance if they find a sick or dead animal.

In addition to the confirmed case, Paraná has another 15 reported epizootics in 9 municipalities. Of these, 6 are under investigation and 3 are undetermined without sample collection..

In relation to humans, 4 cases were reported, 3 of which were discarded and one still under analysis. Half of them were identified in women and the other half in men. All are aged between 40 and 59 years.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

This year's Japanese encephalitis outbreak was at least 6 times larger than health authorities originally thought, prompting warnings NSW must be prepared for more tropical infections with another wet summer ahead.

A serolological survey conducted by NSW Health using blood samples from 917 people in the Griffith, Temora, Corowa, Balranald and Dubbo regions found 1 in 11 -- or 80 people -- showed evidence of previous infection.

The survey excluded people who had been vaccinated against the disease, or had been born in or spent more than one month in a country where the virus is commonly found.

Just 13 cases of the mosquito-borne illness were confirmed in the state during an outbreak across January and February this year, linked to piggeries in the state's south and west.

There are 2 men who died from the disease: a man in his 60s from the Corowa area and a man in his 70s from Griffith. Deaths from the virus were also recorded in regional areas of Victoria, Queensland and South Australia, in what was the country's 1st detection of the virus in humans since an outbreak in the Torres Strait in 1995.

United States: Chronic Wasting Disease

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) and Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) have discovered chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a deer breeding facility in Limestone County. This marks the first positive detection of the disease in the county.

As part of a required CWD surveillance program, samples from 4 deer were detected with CWD prions by the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in College Station on Sept. 5. The National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirmed CWD in 2 of these samples and should complete testing of the other 2 samples soon.

Animal health and wildlife officials have taken action to secure the facility and identify and notify other breeding facilities that received deer from or shipped deer to this facility in the last 5 years.

"TPWD and TAHC are taking this situation very seriously," said John Silovsky, wildlife division director for TPWD. "Fortunately, these positive cases were detected early, and we have a good sample distribution across the facility. At this time, CWD appears to be contained to one pen within the facility. Animal health and wildlife officials will continue to investigate to determine the extent of the disease within the facility and mitigate risks to Texas' CWD susceptible species. Quick detection of CWD can help mitigate the disease's spread."

Canada: Avian Influenza

The Ministry of Agriculture's chief veterinary officer has issued an animal health order limiting the transport and comingling of poultry after several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza were confirmed in Saskatchewan.

The health order will be in place until Oct. 21 at which time it will be reviewed. The order prohibits birds' movement to and participation in shows, auctions, and agricultural fairs, as well as any other events where birds would be brought together from multiple locations.

The goal of this animal health order is to limit the spread of this virus to new flocks. Producers are reminded to remain vigilant and contact the proper authorities should they have any concerns regarding the health of their flocks. Saskatchewan will continue to work with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the poultry industry to support a coordinated and effective response.

Avian influenza (AI) is a federally reportable disease under the Health of Animals Act. This virus, commonly known as "bird flu," affects food-producing birds including chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, and quails as well as pet and wild birds. The CFIA is leading the disease response in Saskatchewan and in other provinces experiencing outbreaks in poultry.

United States: Leptospirosis

Given the floods throughout the Island caused by the passage of Hurricane Fiona (that made landfall in southwestern Puerto Rico on Sept. 18), the Department of Health issued a health alert about leptospirosis, a disease that can affect anyone who comes into contact with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals and have identified 7 suspected cases that are under investigation.

"Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that can cause serious health conditions in the kidneys, liver, meningitis, difficulty breathing, and bleeding. It is a disease that could be fatal.  We have issued a notice and we are calling on the public to know how to prevent it, specifically to stay away from contaminated water," said the Secretary of Health, Dr. Carlos Mellado.

A sample was taken from all patients and the result is awaited; however, since it was a lethal disease, all patients began antibiotic treatment. The cases include 4 men and 3 women between the ages of 10 to 69 years. The suspected cases are found in the Bayamón, Metro, Ponce, Caguas, and Mayagüez regions

A Health Notice about the disease was shared with health facilities, all hospitals, CDTs [diagnosis and treatment centers], 330 Centers [primary health centers], and dialysis clinics, and the guide for managing patient cases related to this disease.

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

The Ministry of Health has announced that the total number of deaths from Rift Valley fever in Mauritania has reached 12, out of 22 cases recently recorded in the country.

According to the ministry's official Facebook page, the total number of tests for hemorrhagic fevers on Sept. 25 reached 112.

The results of these tests revealed 24 cases, including 22 cases of Rift Valley fever and 2 cases of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever.

United States: Anthrax

The South Dakota Animal Industry Board reported that several unvaccinated cattle in Meade County have died from anthrax. South Dakota State Veterinarian Dr. Beth Thompson said the infected cattle were part of a herd of 160 animals that had not received the anthrax vaccine.

The Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory at South Dakota State University confirmed the disease from samples submitted over the weekend. This is the first appearance of anthrax infection this year, Thompson said.

Thompson said anthrax is an economically devastating disease for the livestock industry because it can cause the rapid loss of many animals in a short time. Affected livestock are often found dead with no illness detected. Anthrax spores survive indefinitely in contaminated soil, and much of South Dakota has the potential of experiencing an outbreak, Thompson said.

Significant climate change, such as drought, floods and winds, can expose anthrax spores to grazing livestock. Alkaline soils, high humidity and high temperatures present conditions for anthrax spores to vegetate and become infectious to grazing livestock, she said.

Pakistan: Diphtheria

Diphtheria, a vaccine-preventable disease that has vanished from most parts of the world, has so far killed at least 10 children in Sindh, mostly in the last 2 months, health officials confirmed on Sept. 26. Health experts fear that number of deaths due to the highly lethal infection could be much higher than the official figures. "So far 10 children have lost their lives due to diphtheria in Sindh while 39 cases have been confirmed in the province", Dr. Irshad Memon, Project Director of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) told The News when asked about the number of diphtheria cases and mortalities due to the bacterial infection in the province.

According to infectious diseases experts, diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make toxin. It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart rhythm problems, and even death. Senior pediatric infectious diseases expert Dr. Asad Ali claimed that a diphtheria outbreak was being reported from Karachi and other parts of Sindh and as per official figures; so far it had claimed the lives of 10 children but claimed that the number of deaths due to the vaccine-preventable disease could be 5 times higher than the official figures.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Bali's Agriculture and Food Security office claims the island has been free of FMD for almost 2 months.

But the ABC has seen and filmed cattle with clear signs of FMD this month in separate areas of Bali. Farmers have reported cattle with symptoms consistent with the disease, including foaming at the mouth, poor appetite, and swollen feet. And officials in Denpasar have also confirmed to the ABC that more than 60 cattle were slaughtered in the first week of September because of the disease.

A senior Agriculture official says Bali slaughtered 556 cows with FMD in July, swiftly eliminated a small cluster of cases in Denpasar in August, and now has zero cases.

"I believe it's the 2nd-most infectious disease known to science," said Ross Ainsworth, a vet who has previously worked for decades in Australia's live cattle trade, and now spends considerable time in Bali. "The policy of the government here is to not talk about the disease and hope that it will sort of fade from interest. It's just so infectious that it will be here, and it will be here for a long time."

United States: Lyme Disease

The veterinarians were puzzled. They had a horse which was clearly sick, but they didn't know why.

This wasn't just any horse. It was a performance horse, preparing for competition.

The veterinarians suspected neurologic Lyme disease, but couldn't confirm.

It just so happened researchers at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and University of Maryland, led by Steven Schutzer, a Rutgers professor of medicine, were working to refine a new method to detect the disease.

Schutzer's team tested the spinal fluid of the horse, and sure enough, it was Lyme.

This new test holds promise for humans -- and dogs, too. It's about time. Lyme is the most common vector-borne illness in the U.S. Based on insurance records, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimates 476,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme every year. The disease is particularly prevalent in southeastern Pennsylvania.

September 23, 2022

Spain: Anthrax

Public Health has confirmed a case of human infection with anthrax in Extremadura. A veterinarian has been infected while conducting a necropsy that the health professional performed on a cow in the Alburquerque cattle farm.

The Animal Health services have not been able to confirm the possible case in livestock because the reference laboratory does not have the necessary material to carry out the analyses and precise cultures that are required.

Still, the Board reports that in the livestock farm all surveillance and control measurs will be taken in addition, all cattle at this location will be vaccinated.

Mongolia: Plague

According to Mongolian local media reports, the laboratory test report of a suspected case of plague previously reported by Mongolia was released. The results showed that the above-mentioned case was changed from suspected to confirmed.

At present, although the 11 people who have had close contact with the confirmed case have no symptoms of infection, the plague prevention and control medical team has taken home isolation and preventive treatment measures for them.

Most cases are due to bubonic plague following the bite of an infected rodent flea, causing a swollen and very tender lymph gland. The swollen gland is called a "bubo." Although the term bubonic plague is used in the post, no mention of swollen lymph nodes is given, suggesting perhaps septicemic plague instead.

Czech  Republic: Tick-borne Encephalitis

According to information from the State Health Institute (SZÚ), there are more cases of tick-borne diseases this year by the end of August than in the same period last year. Doctors reported 441 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 2,035 cases of Lyme disease this year; last year's numbers were about a quarter lower for Lyme disease and about 13% lower for encephalitis. At the same time, roughly a third of people become infected every year in autumn.

Ticks are usually found in grassy and leafy vegetation until day or night temperatures permanently drop below 5 degrees Celsius. As a result of global warming, they are also found in the Czech Republic in November and at higher altitudes than was previously common.

Doctors reported 589 cases of tick-borne encephalitis by the end of August 2020, which was the most since 2013. A total of 2,429 people were infected with Lyme disease in the same period, there were more in 2016 and 2018, for example. While for other infectious diseases, the number of cases dropped in the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation was the opposite for tick-borne diseases. At the time, experts stated that more people headed to nature at a time when other opportunities for enjoyment, whether sports or culture, were closed.

United States: Eastern Equine Encephalitis

The Florida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) reports 2 Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) cases in horses in Hillsborough County. The 2 geldings, a 3-year-old and a 9-year-old, showed onset of signs.

Both vaccinated horses exhibited incoordination, hindlimb paresis, inability to stand and head pressing. Both have died. These are the 10th and 11th confirmed case of EEE for Florida in 2022.

Eastern equine encephalitis is spread to horses and humans by infected mosquitoes, including several Culex species and Culiseta melanura.

Dominican Republic: African Swine Fever

In August, authorities confirmed by molecular diagnosis 20 new outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF), bringing the total of accumulated confirmed cases to 1,615 distributed in 31 provinces, according to a report from the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) Of those, 980 outbreaks have been resolved.

Since the beginning of the outbreak, samples from over 4,899 production sites have been taken and processed by Dominican veterinary services; 417 of them were taken during the last month, from which 20 tested positive for ASF.

SHIC said it is important to note that the positive rate has changed since November 2021 (from over 40% to 17%), denoting the progressive efficacy of control efforts across the country. Still, they said, the active spread of the virus throughout the population is of great concern.

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

The Mauritanian Ministry of Health announced the registration of 4 deaths of people infected with Rift Valley fever [RVF], and 8 cases of 2 types of viral hemorrhagic fevers.

The ministry added that it conducted 63 tests to detect hemorrhagic fevers, which resulted in the registration of 7 cases of RVF and one case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

The Ministry of Animal Development announced that the number of livestock infected with RVF had risen to 149, distributed over several states.

The ministry said that it reached this conclusion after conducting a set of 564 analyses, noting that the recorded injuries are distributed among 5 foci.

Ghana: Marburg Virus Disease

Ghana declared the end of the Marburg virus disease outbreak, a hemorrhagic fever almost as deadly as Ebola, 2 months after recording 3 cases, 2 of them fatal, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced.

"Ghana's Ministry of Health has declared the end of the epidemic after no cases were recorded for 42 days," the WHO announced in a statement.

"Although the country has no experience with the virus, Ghana's response has been swift and robust," Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa, was quoted as saying in the statement.

This was the 1st time the hemorrhagic fever had been detected in Ghana, which has confirmed a total of 3 cases, 2 of them fatal, in the outbreak..

"Marburg is a scary disease because it is highly infectious and deadly. There is no vaccine or antiviral treatment. Any outbreak of Marburg is a major concern," Moeti added.

Turkey: Foot and Mouth Disease and Anthrax

Foot-and-mouth disease was detected in Aşağışehirören and Yukarışehirören villages of Taşköprü district of Kastamonu. With the occurrence of foot and mouth disease, Kastamonu Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry teams banned entrance and exit to villages where the disease was detected. In addition, a quarantine radius of about 2 kilometers was imposed in Taşköprü's Aşağışehirören and Yukarışehirören villages. After the quarantine of the 2 villages, the Taşköprü Livestock Market was closed until further notice as a precaution.

Anthrax disease has also been detected in 14 villages in the Kuzyaka region of Kastamonu. With the appearance of the disease, Kastamonu Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry and Kastamonu Veterinarian Chamber Presidency teams quarantined 14 villages in the Kuzyaka region and banned entry and exit.

Since anthrax is a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans, especially affecting the lungs and skin, Kastamonu Provincial Health Directorate teams also carried out contact studies. Teams traveling from house to house followed the citizens who were in contact or showed signs of illness and ensured their treatment.

Brazil: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

The Municipality of Campinas in São Paulo State confirmed 2 more deaths of residents from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), bringing the total to 4 in 2022.

The following is the list of the fatalities:

Female, 36 years old: onset of symptoms on 28 Jul 2022. The probable site of infection is in the South region. She died on 4 Aug 2022; Female, 45 years old: 1st symptoms on 1 Jul 2022. The probable site of infection is in the East region. She died on 5 Jul 2022.; Male, 66 years old: onset of symptoms on 24 Jun 2022 and died on 30 Jun 2022. Infected, probably, in Sousas; Male, 18 years old: died on 24 Apr 2022 (1st case)

According to health officials, the coldest and driest months, which consist of the dry season, are the ones with the highest transmissibility of spotted fever.

According to the Ministry of Health, spotted fever is an infectious, acute febrile disease of variable severity. It can range from mild and atypical clinical forms to severe forms, with a high fatality rate. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia, transmitted by tick bites.

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

As many as 126 cattle have died and 25 districts affected by the lumpy skin disease [LSD] virus in Maharashtra, informed the state's animal husbandry department.

"A total of 126 infected animals have died, the release stated.

"Lumpy skin disease (LSD) has been rapidly spreading all throughout the Maharashtra state. It is a cutaneous viral disease of the bovines. This disease is not transmitted to human beings either from animals or through cow milk," the animal husbandry department release stated.

In the release, IAS officer Sachindra Pratap Singh appealed on behalf of the government: "Although the disease has been spreading, the spread is limited to cows and bullocks and is not zoonotic. Strict action will be undertaken in case of spreading rumors on social media."

South Africa: Avian Influenza

Cape Town's well-loved penguin colony faces a new threat: avian flu.

The disease was detected at the Boulders Penguin Colony.

The flu strain is the same as the one detected in seabirds in the Western Cape last year. That outbreak saw thousands of birds die in vulnerable colonies.

Now, conservationists worry the same fate could await the endangered penguins -- if quick action is not taken.

Once seabirds show symptoms of bird flu, they usually die soon afterward, said Dr. David Roberts, a clinical veterinarian at the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds.

With a population of only 3,000 birds at Boulders, every death places strain on conservation efforts to revive the colony's numbers.

Spain: Bluetongue

The Commission of Extremadura has confirmed, through the National Regency Laboratory, a case of serotype 4 of the bluetongue virus [BTV] in the region of Coria (Cáceres).

The samples were taken at the bovine sentinel farm, located in the municipality of Coria, within the framework of the active surveillance provided for in the National Bluetongue Surveillance, Control and Eradication Program.

The animals used as sentinels are young cattle, not vaccinated against bluetongue (unprotected), which are regularly tested in order to facilitate early detection of any circulation of the bluetongue virus in that region. The animals do not show symptoms compatible with the disease, nor is there evidence of symptoms in animals of sensitive species from farms in the environment, explains the Junta de Extremadura in a press release.

Switzerland: Tick-borne Encephalitis

The summer of 2022 saw a record number of tick-borne encephalitis infections. By early September, more than 300 people had contracted the tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus [TBE] transmitted by the unwanted [tick]. There were fewer than 100 cases during the same period 10 years ago, reported our colleagues from the "SonntagsZeitung," which is already worth the title of "tick year" in 2022.

This disease is not to be taken lightly: if it is most often without consequence, it can sometimes cause serious neurological sequelae and cause death in 1% of cases. Especially since after infection, treatment is only symptomatic..

In very hot years, ticks proliferate and the virus with it. In the event of a hot spring, it is estimated that one in a hundred ticks carries the [TBE] virus, while the proportion drops to one in a thousand if the same period is rather cool. But aside from these one-off effects, climate change has already compounded the problem.

United States: Avian Influenza

According to the Wyoming Game and Fish, birds in Wyoming are again testing positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza. After a hiatus from confirming any bird deaths from HPAI over the summer, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's Wildlife Health Laboratory in Laramie confirmed positives in a blue-winged teal and a great horned owl this month.

"With bird hunting seasons either ongoing or rapidly approaching, and as migrating birds start to head south, we are asking the public to keep an eye out for dead birds and be aware of the disease," said Jessica Jennings-Gaines, Game and Fish wildlife disease specialist.

Game and Fish is continuing surveillance of HPAI, and it now has an online reporting tool that should help the public get reports directly to the lab. The lab asks the public to follow these criteria when reporting birds suspicious for HPAI infection:

Chili: Anthrax

A suspected case of anthrax was recorded at a Primary Emergency Care Service in the Lampa commune, after a man of Haitian nationality arrived at the scene with symptoms that suggested a possible contagion of this disease. A possible case of anthrax led to the closure of an emergency care facility in the Lampa commune.

A 78-year-old man of Haitian nationality went to the SAPU Doctor José Bauzá located on Ismael Carmona Street. According to the 1st medical history, the patient had severe abdominal pain, a chest injury and an X-ray where, according to the radiologist's observation, he suggested a presumed suspicion.

With this background, the health seremi was informed who indicated isolation in the 1st instance and then the transfer to the San José Hospital to stabilize the man, who was then referred to the Doctor Lucio Córdoba Infectious Diseases Hospital to refer or rule out the contagion.

September 16, 2022

Italy: Leptospirosis

Two cases of leptospirosis have been ascertained in the hospital in Eboli. These are 2 foreign workers who work in buffalo farms in the Piana del Sele. The 2 workers were hospitalized in the medicine ward.

Once the analyses were carried out, the response from a Neapolitan specialist center arrived. At that point, the workers were transferred to the infectious disease ward and are in isolation.

The news was transmitted to the ASL [regional health department], which will start the sanitation checks in the 2 companies. Doctors do not seem worried about the health conditions of the 2 patients. However, the infection represents a serious complaint of the poor working conditions in which foreign workers find themselves.

Mauritania: Rift Valley Fever

The Ministry of Livestock in Mauritania announced the rise in cases of Rift Valley fever to 95 cases, stressing that they are distributed among 5 outbreaks. The ministry announced that out of 465 suspected samples taken in the 5 governorates, 95 samples were tested positive. The Ministry decided to isolate infected animals, treat them and limit their movement, and also decided to use pesticides and control insects that transmit the disease.

Kazakhstan: Anthrax

In the Kostryakovskiy rural district, a quarantine is being established in connection with the detection of anthrax among cattle.

Quarantine will be established on the territory of the village of Spasnoye, follows from the draft decision of the akim of the Kostryakovskiy rural district.

It should be noted a year earlier, in July 2021, anthrax was detected in the Denisovsky district of the Kostanay region, in the village of Prirechnoye. In November 2021, the disease was recorded in one of the farms in the village of Zhaltyrkol, also in the Denisovsky district.

According to the Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Control of the Kostanay region, as of May this year, 156 stationary unfavorable points for anthrax were registered in the region. These are settlements on the territory of which there are anthrax burials of sick cattle. In total, there are 308 such burials in the region.

Azerbaijan: Anthrax

Wounds characteristic of anthrax were found on the hands and forearms of 6 residents of the Piyadalar village of the Barda region of Azerbaijan.

According to transmitsvesti.az with reference to the message of the Association for the Management of Medical Territorial Divisions of Azerbaijan (TABIB), the symptoms of anthrax were detected as a result of monitoring carried out in the village on Sept. 1 by a special group, based on information received from one of the residents.

The special group included employees of the Barda region, the Center for the Control of Particularly Dangerous Infections of the Ministry of Health and the Barda branch of the Republican Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology, the Barda Central District Hospital, the Veterinary Department, the Food Security Agency, employees of the Piyadalar village municipality, and employees of the district police department.

Syria: Cholera

On Sept. 10, the Syrian Ministry of Health (MoH) declared an outbreak of cholera in Aleppo Governorate following 15 confirmed laboratory cases, including one death. Between Aug. 25 and Sept. 10, the surveillance data showed that a total of 936 severe acute watery diarrhea cases were reported in Syria, including at least 8 deaths. The number of confirmed cholera cases so far is 20 in Aleppo, 4 in Lattakia, and 2 in Damascus.

Based on a rapid assessment conducted by health authorities and partners, the source of infection is believed to be linked to people drinking unsafe water from the Euphrates River and using contaminated water to irrigate crops, resulting in food contamination. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity.

This outbreak is also an indicator of severe shortages of water throughout Syria. 

Australia: Q Fever

An Australian region has been put on alert after an alarming number of rare bacterial disease cases were detected. Queensland Health has told residents in the electoral division of Wide Bay -- which includes Noosa, Maryborough, and Gympie -- that they should get vaccinated against the mysterious Q fever.

Health officials said there have been 11 locals found to have the disease in 2022, almost double the average of 5 to 7 cases for this point in the year over the previous 5 years.

The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii bacteria that can be carried by cattle, goats, sheep, and kangaroos and can be transferred to humans by direct contact or breathing dust contaminated by birth fluids, urine, or feces. Other animals like foxes and even pets such as dogs and cats can also carry the disease though it's less common. Person-to-person transmission is even rarer but can happen.

Symptoms include high fever, chills, sweats, headaches, muscle and joint soreness, and extreme fatigue. Some cases can go on to develop a long-term chronic fatigue-like illness. The symptoms can resemble the flu, leading to a risk of the disease being undiagnosed, Queensland Health warned.

Nepal: Japanese Encephalitis

Following the outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Chitwan, awareness campaigns have been launched in the district. A rapid response team coordinated by chief of the district health office has been formed, and special measures have been adopted to contain the risks of the disease, according to health office Chief Durgadatta Chapagain. So far, of 22 tests, 9 cases of Japanese encephalitis have been confirmed in the district.

"Representatives from Bharatpur Hospital, 2 medical colleges, a private hospital and Nepal Red Cross Society are members of the response team that has been on standby in all 7 local levels," he said. Following the decision, buffer stocks of medicines required during the pandemic at all the local levels and health office have been managed. "The team will immediately reach out and respond to the crisis when there is a sudden outbreak of any disease," said Chapagain.

Arrangements have been made for the main response team to prepare report on a daily basis when it finds suspects of any pandemic, including Japanese encephalitis. "Doctors belonging to the World Health Organisation were consulted on what types of Japanese encephalitis patients should be under surveillance," he said. Reportedly, doctors have continuously taken stock of infected patients and their families.

United States: Avian Influenza

A bottlenose dolphin found dead in Florida's Dixie County was infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, or HPAIV, making it the first cetacean to be found with the virus in America and only the second known case in the world.

The young male dolphin was recovered in March at Horseshoe Beach by the University of Florida's marine animal rescue team. A collaboration between UF College of Veterinary Medicine researchers and state and federal laboratories identified the unexpected infection with HPAIV, commonly known as bird flu. The virus recovered from the dolphin belonged to clade 2.3.4.4b of the Eurasian H5 viral lineage.

Wild birds have spread H5 clade 2.3.4.4b HPAIV widely in North America and Europe this year. The virus primarily affects wild birds and domesticated poultry but only rarely infects people. Researchers suspect the dolphin likely got infected by interacting with a wild bird killed by HPAIV.

"While obviously the presence of HPAIV is a concern, the key takeaway for us is that additional caution should be taken by those handling or encountering wild dolphins during rescue events or while performing necropsies," said Mike Walsh, DVM, a clinical associate professor with UF's College of Veterinary Medicine who leads the animal rescue team and performed the dolphin's necropsy with others.

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

As lumpy skin disease has rapidly spread among cattle in 8 states of India, more than 67,000 cattle have died since July. The viral disease's outbreak has prompted a massive vaccination drive in the country.

Lumpy skin disease has now spread in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Jammu & Kashmir.

India has begun administering the "goat pox vaccine" to all cattle in the affected states. The vaccine is "100% effective" against the lumpy skin disease, the center said.

More than 15 million doses have been administered to cattle in the affected states.

Indigenous vaccine "Lumpi-ProVacInd" for the lumpy disease has also been developed in India. Currently, 2 companies are manufacturing the vaccine.

Spain: Avian Influenza

The Central Veterinary Laboratory of Algete has confirmed the detection of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (HPAI) in a laying hen farm located in the municipality of Fontanar, in the province of Guadalajara. This is the first focus on poultry in Castilla-La Mancha. With these, there are 35 reported HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Spain in 2022 .

The site is a laying farm in the municipality of Fontanar, with approximately 601,000 animals , distributed in 6 buildings, 5 in cages and one on the ground. The suspicion of the disease was derived from the detection and communication of an abnormal increase in mortality on Sept. 8 in one of the caged buildings. The samples taken during the official inspection visit carried out by the Official Veterinary Services (OVS) of the Junta de Castilla-La Mancha were sent to the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Algete, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Spain, where it was confirmed that it is a strain of HPAI subtype H5N1.

The most likely route of introduction of the virus on the farm is considered to have been through contact with wild birds, given that this year the circulation of the virus among these birds is being maintained during the summer despite the high temperatures.

August 26, 2022

United States: Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is rebounding in Maine this year, with the number of cases on pace to exceed the totals for 2020 and 2021.

Maine recorded 1,433 Lyme cases through Aug. 14, compared with 1,127 in all of 2020 and 1,510 in all of 2021, according to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. And the deer ticks that cause Lyme will actively search for hosts well into the autumn before becoming less active and burrowing beneath leaf litter for the winter.

The increase in cases this year comes despite the dry summer in much of the state. Warm, humid, and rainy weather brings out ticks, while dry weather is not as favorable for the arachnids.

Griffin Dill, integrated pest management professional for the University of Maine Cooperative Extension's tick lab, said it's difficult to determine what is causing the increase in Lyme cases this year, but several factors may be at work.

A rainy late spring and early summer may have contributed. Dill said even with mostly dry conditions in July and August, the ticks may have been better poised to survive a dry spell after the near-ideal weather conditions earlier this year. "The adult ticks in spring and early summer were highly active," Dill said. "It started to tail off at the end of June, early July."

Dill said another factor may be that a higher percentage of deer ticks are carrying the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The lab accepts tick samples from all over the state to test for infectious diseases, and the percentage of ticks found to be carrying the bacteria increased from 38 percent in 2019 to 45 percent so far this year. "We have more ticks testing positive for the pathogens than in previous years," Dill said.

Indonesia: Chikungunya

During the past few weeks, the GeoSentinel Surveillance and Research Network has identified 4 travelers to Bali, Indonesia with acute chikungunya. Two of the 4 had their infection confirmed by PCR, while one had a probable infection with a high IgM titer with follow-up serology showing declining IgM and rising IgG, and the 4th had a probable chikungunya infection based on testing done in Bali.

All 4 traveled to Bali as tourists between March and June 2022 and had onset of symptoms either during travel or shortly after returning to their home countries in Europe (the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Spain). Although the GeoSentinel Network has seen 60 patients with confirmed or probable chikungunya after travel to Indonesia since 2000, there have not been any cases since 2020.

 Although there have not been any recent reports of chikungunya transmission on the island of Bali, there have been outbreaks of this disease in the past, including an outbreak from 2009 to 2011 and a more recent small outbreak in north Bali in late 2015 and 2016.

India: Anthrax

A one-year-old boy suffered a massive, oozing lesion on his butt after he had been infected with anthrax. An Indian research team reports that the boy was brought in for treatment 7 days after the lesion -- which was painless -- appeared on his left buttocks. It erupted rapidly in the coming days, growing and eventually becoming necrotic as the tissue surrounding the lesion died.

The boy was diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax, the most common form of the infection. It is the least deadly version of the condition but is still dangerous in its own right. It is often transferred to humans via interaction with a cow, goat, or sheep -- though this child had no known contact with an infected animal.

When this event occurred was not revealed by researchers from the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, on the southeastern tip of the South Asian country.

The young child's lesion was painless, but 7 days after forming he was brought into a pediatric emergency department. Doctors report that it started small before "enlarging rapidly" and covering his entire left buttocks. Five days later, the lesion became necrotic, meaning that blood was having trouble flowing to the skin tissue, causing it to die and then decay.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

Bulacan province has recorded 30 cases of leptospirosis and 6 related deaths since January, the Bulacan Provincial Health Office (PHO) reported on Aug. 19.

The City of San Jose del Monte had the most cases with 9 infections, followed by Hagonoy and San Miguel with 3 each. Balagtas, Marilao, Obando, and Pandi towns have 2 cases each, and Bustos, City of Malolos, City of Meycauayan, Plaridel, San Ildefonso, Sta. Maria, and San Rafael have 1 each.

The 6 deaths were recorded in the City of San Jose del Monte and Hagonoy with 2 each, and the City of Meycauayan and Pandi with 1 case each.

Dr. Edwin Tecson, Bulacan PHO head, said the total of 30 cases this year is 150% higher compared to only 12 cases recorded in the same period last year.

The ages of those infected were 1 to 60 years old, but most of the cases were aged 21 to 30. Tecson said 87% of the affected are male and only 17% are female.

United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) on Aug. 17confirmed that a white-tailed deer in the town of Dover Plains, Dutchess County, died after contracting epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD). This detection marks the 1st EHD confirmation in New York for 2022. DEC is currently investigating reports of several other dead deer from Dutchess County.

EHD virus is an often-fatal disease of deer that is transmitted by biting midges, small bugs often called no-see-ums or "punkies." The disease is not spread directly from deer to deer, and humans cannot be infected by deer or bites from midges.

The EHD virus was first confirmed in New York in 2007 with relatively small outbreaks in Albany, Rensselaer, and Niagara counties, and in Rockland County in 2011. In 2020, a large EHD outbreak occurred in the lower Hudson Valley, centered in Putnam and Orange counties, with reports from the public of approximately 1,500 dead deer. In 2021 the outbreak shifted, and DEC received more than 2,000 reports of dead deer primarily in Ulster, Dutchess, Columbia, Oswego, and Jefferson counties.

Once infected with EHD, deer usually die within 36 hours. EHD outbreaks are most common in the late summer and early fall when midges are abundant. Symptoms include fever, hemorrhage in muscle or organs, and swelling of the head, neck, tongue, and lips. A deer infected with EHD may appear lame or dehydrated. Frequently, infected deer will seek out water sources, and many succumb near a water source. There is no treatment or means to prevent EHD. The dead deer do not serve as a source of infection for other animals.

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

Lumpy skin disease [LSD] has recently spread in Asia following outbreaks in the Middle East and Europe. The disease emerged in Bangladesh in July 2019.

According to [a senior government] official, India too saw the 1st case of LSD in the same year, 2019, in eastern states especially West Bengal and Odisha. But this year, the disease has been reported in western and northern states as well as in Andaman Nicobar.

"First, LSD was reported in Gujarat and it has spread to 8 states/union territories now. More than 185,000 cattle have been affected so far and more than 7,300 cattle have died since the outbreak of the disease in July," the official told PTI.

About 74,325 cattle have been affected in Punjab so far, with the numbers 58,546 in Gujarat, 43,962 in Rajasthan, 6,385 in Jammu and Kashmir, 1,300 in Uttarakhand, 532 in Himachal Pradesh, 260 in Andaman & Nicobar, he said and added the data from Madhya Pradesh is awaited.

The disease, caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, is spread through mosquitoes, flies and ticks.

Congo: Ebola

A new case of Ebola virus has been confirmed in the city of Beni [North Kivu province] in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, the country's National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB) said.

Testing showed the case was genetically linked to the 2018-2020 outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, which killed nearly 2,300 people, said a statement from Placide Mbala, chief of the Pathogen Genomics Laboratory at INRB.

Another flare-up from that outbreak killed 6 people last year. Congo's most recent outbreak was in a different part of the country and was declared over in July after 5 deaths.

Ebola can sometimes linger in the eyes, central nervous system, and bodily fluids of survivors and flare up years later.

The case was confirmed in a woman who died on Aug. 15 after being admitted to a hospital in Beni on July 23, the statement said.

South Africa: Foot and Mouth Disease

KwaZulu-Natal Agriculture MEC Bongi Sithole-Moloi has pleaded with livestock owners in the province to observe the ban on cattle movement as part of the measures to limit the spread of foot-and mouth-disease (FMD).

This comes after an FMD case was identified in KwaNyuswa area, which falls under eThekwini Municipality, this week.

Following the discovery, the MEC embarked on a campaign involving livestock associations across the province, urging livestock owners to comply with the current ban, adding that such a move will be crucial in securing the future of livestock farming and trading in KZN and South Africa.

The department's Vusi Zuma said the MEC was pleased with the response from the livestock farming community.

"The MEC made them understand that the future is in their hands, and they should do everything in their power to protect the livestock trade by observing the ban," said Zuma.

He added that the department had also availed assistance in the form of cattle feed for the farmers who were battling owing to the ban.

United States: Avian Influenza

Bird flu has killed hundreds of wild black vultures at a Georgia sanctuary that houses more than 1,500 other animals.

At least 700 black vultures have died, Noah's Ark animal care manager Allison Hedgecoth told WXIA-TV. State workers euthanized 20 to 30 other birds, she said.

"All of our chickens were euthanized yesterday (Aug. 23) and our turkeys and our guinea hens," she said.

State officials have set up a 6-mile perimeter around the sanctuary in hope of containing the spread, according to WXIA.

"With birds that are able to move around and airborne, this disease could spread pretty rapidly if it's not contained very quickly," state Senator Emanuel Jones told the station.

No other birds at the Noah's Ark sanctuary have tested positive for or shown symptoms of the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, sanctuary officials told news outlets.

An outbreak of the virus in the US has led to the deaths of 40 million chickens and turkeys and about 2000 wild birds this year. The wild birds include more than 240 black vultures and nearly 220 bald eagles, according to the US Department of Agriculture. Even seals have died from it.

Canada: Anthrax

Nine livestock animals are dead and the rest of the herd is in quarantine after the Ministry of Agriculture reported that anthrax was found on a pasture in southwest Saskatchewan.

The ministry said in a statement the deaths occurred on a farming operation in the Rural Municipality of Piapot near Maple Creek. It did not identify the type of animals exposed to respect the privacy of the producer, though confirmed it was not cattle. Livestock such as bison, cattle, sheep and goats are highly susceptible.

The disease is caused by bacteria, which can live in spores in soil for decades. These spores can be found in pastures, sloughs and potholes. There is a higher risk of anthrax exposure in drier years, according to the ministry, when these areas dry up and are more accessible to animals.

Animals can become infected when they eat contaminated forage.

August 19, 2022

Ukraine: Leptospirosis

The Main Department of the State Production and Consumer Service in Lviv region reported that 3 cases of leptospirosis were registered in the region. The patients are in serious condition in the hospital.

One patient in a state of moderate severity with complaints of general weakness, elevated body temperature, lethargy, and muscle pain was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Lviv Regional Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital. He had bathed in a local pond the day before. The other 2 patients did not immediately seek medical help after the appearance of alarming symptoms but were treated on their own for more than a week.

One of them had a drop in blood pressure, almost no urination, high fever, muscle pain, and intoxication. In serious condition, the patients were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Lviv Regional Infectious Disease Clinical Hospital.

In total, 7 cases of leptospirosis have been registered in the region this year, 3 of them among residents of Lviv. Doctors note that elimination of rats has not been carried out in Lviv region recently. Consequently, the number of rats is increasing.

Spain: Avian Influenza

The event started on Aug. 1. One outbreak has been reported to date. HPAI H5N1 was confirmed in a fattening turkey farm in the municipality of La Nava, Huelva, Andalucía, with an approximate census of 15,000 animals, distributed in 2 sheds, one of them with 6,000 turkeys that remained healthy and the other with about 9,000 turkeys, in which an increase in mortality was detected.

Tanzania: Leptospirosis

As of Aug. 8, the United Republic of Tanzania has reported 20 cases of leptospirosis in 2 districts in Lindi Region, including 3 deaths. Of these, 15 cases have been laboratory-confirmed. The majority of cases are men, and all are reported to be farmers, with occupational exposure as the likely source of infection. No new cases have been reported since July 15. Field investigations and active case finding are ongoing to identify any new or missed cases.

Cases of leptospirosis are not unexpected in the United Republic of Tanzania, although reports of outbreaks are rare. Cases tend to have a seasonal distribution, increasing with elevated rainfall or temperature. Transmission usually occurs through direct exposure to infected animal urine or through environmental exposure.

France: Monkeypox

Whether domesticated cats and dogs could be a vector for monkeypox virus is unknown. Here we describe the first case of a dog with confirmed monkeypox virus infection that might have been acquired through human transmission.

Two men who have sex with men attended Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, on June 10. The men are non-exclusive partners living in the same household. The men had presented with anal ulceration 6 days after sex with other partners. Monkeypox virus was assayed by real-time PCR. In patient 1, virus was detected in skin and oropharynx samples; whereas in patient 2, virus was detected in anal and oropharynx samples.

Their male Italian greyhound, aged 4 years and with no previous medical disorders, presented with mucocutaneous lesions, including abdomen pustules and a thin anal ulceration. The dog tested positive for monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus DNA sequences from the dog and patient 1 were compared by next-generation sequencing. Both samples contained virus of the hMPXV-1 clade, lineage B.1, which has been spreading in non-endemic countries since April 2022, and, as of 4 Aug 2022, has infected more than 1,700 people in France.

The men reported co-sleeping with their dog.

Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

In a follow-up on the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreak in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health announced on July 28, a high number of infections and deaths from hemorrhagic fever.

In a brief statement, the ministry stated that the number of hemorrhagic fever cases rose to 273, while 49 deaths were recorded.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.

Animals become infected by the bite of infected ticks and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about one week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites. Although a number of tick genera are capable of becoming infected with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the principal vector.

South Africa: Foot and Mouth Disease

The Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development, Ms. Thoko Didiza, MP has taken the decision to suspend all movement of cattle in the whole country. The minister's decision is aimed at halting the continued spread of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] in the country. It also means that cattle may not be moved from one property to another for any reason for a period of 21 days, reviewable weekly.

Departmental spokesperson Reggie Ngcobo confirmed to Food for Mzansi that the decision would be published Aug. 16.

According to the Agricultural Produce Agents council (Apac), the ban on cattle movement is expected to last for 28 days.

This will bar anyone from moving cattle for trading, lobola [marriage payment], or exhibition purposes. Cattle will only be allowed to be transported to registered abattoirs for slaughter.

Tunisia: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

Climatic changes, combining high temperatures and rain in some areas, have caused the proliferation of arthropods, potentially transmitting animal diseases. The veterinary services of the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Fisheries have noted during August several cases of the disease called epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) in cattle. The EHD virus infects ruminants, especially deer and elk, and appears also in cattle. Its symptoms are similar to those of bluetongue disease.

EHD virus is not infectious to humans. It appeared for the first time in Tunisia and the Maghreb in 2006, causing internal bleedings in the susceptible species. The disease is transmitted by Culicoides during seasons with appropriate climatic conditions (humidity and high temperature), especially in humid and irrigated areas.

The Veterinary Services call upon all breeders to prevent and protect their animals from the vectors by applying the relevant guidelines.

Suspected cases should be reported to the regional offices of 'agricultural development', specifying the observed symptoms of the disease (high temperature, redness of the membranes, swelling of the head).

August 12, 2022

Switzerland: Diphtheria

Up to 8 people living in a center in the capital, Bern, contracted diphtheria, but had no difficulties breathing, a spokesman for the state secretariat for Migration said Aug. 2. The infected group of people were put in isolation, and more than 170 other asylum seekers, notably unaccompanied minors, are in quarantine at the center. The former hospital houses up to 350 people during the first phase of their asylum procedure.

Diphtheria rarely occurs in western Europe, where children for decades have been vaccinated against the highly contagious infection of the nose and throat. However, diphtheria is still common in developing countries, according to experts. The last known case of the infectious disease in Switzerland was recorded in 1983, the Federal Office of Public Health writes.

France: Avian Influenza

The highly pathogenic bird flu, or avian influenza [HPAI], has been detected at a turkey farm in northern France, causing the cull of at least 8,000 turkeys, French daily news Le Figaro reported Aug. 1.

"Regulated protection and surveillance zones have been set up within a radius of 3-10 km," local authorities of the city of Feuilleres, in the northern department of Somme of France, said in a press release. The first outbreak of the high pathogenic bird flu was found at the turkey farm. According to the release, all places of poultry and captive birds are subject to specific measures, in particular the prohibition of movements of poultry and captive birds. The state veterinary services are mobilized alongside the breeder who will be compensated for the losses suffered.

Since November 2021, France has reported more than 1,300 outbreaks of HPAI virus and ordered the cull of 20 million birds. During the period from autumn 2020 to spring 2021, 500 outbreaks of HPAI were detected and 3.5 million birds culled in the country.

United States: Equine Infectious Encephalitis

The Florida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services has reported 2 new cases of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE).

A 7 year old mustang mare in Polk County used for pleasure riding showed signs of inappetence and lethargy on June 19. She was under-vaccinated and euthanized following her June 30 positive test.

Also, a yearling quarter horse filly in Bradford County presented with a fever, depression, ataxia, aimless wandering, listlessness, and hind-limb weakness on June 22. She tested positive on June 30 and was euthanized.

These are the 5th and 6th confirmed cases of EEE in Florida in 2022.

Canada: Avian Influenza

Quebec researchers have detected avian flu in at least 2 species of seal, and they fear the virus is to blame for the unusually high number of dead seals reported on the province's shorelines.

A marine mammal research group, the Réseau québécois d'urgences pour les mammifères marins, says about 100 harbor seal carcasses have been found since January along the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in eastern Quebec -- almost 6 times more than in an average year. "In June alone, the number reached 65 carcasses," the research group said in a statement on Aug. 2. "Avian influenza was quickly suspected of playing a role in the increasing mortality."

About 15 of the dead harbor seals have tested positive for the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu, with the 1st case detected in a grey seal last week, said Stéphane Lair, a professor of veterinary medicine at Université de Montréal. He said the seals most likely were in contact with carcasses of infected eider ducks when they came ashore to give birth at the beginning of the summer. "Some seals, including the grey seal, are known for eating wild birds ... but not harbor seals," Lair said in an interview. "They are curious, they will smell carcasses."

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

In all, 886 animals have got infected with lumpy skin disease (LSD) and 22 head of cattle have died in Muktsar. LSD symptoms include fever, nodules on skin, watery eyes and increased nasal and salivary secretions in cattle.

Ironically, the district animal husbandry office has just $314 to take precautionary measures. Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Dairy Development minister Laljit Singh Bhullar on Aug.1 instructed veterinary staff to intensify the campaign to tackle contagious lumpy skin disease. The district-level teams have been formed to protect the livestock. A team from North Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Jalandhar, is also visiting the affected areas.

The cases are mainly reported in Fazilka, Muktsar, Moga and Faridkot districts. An additional $629 has been allocated for Fazilka and other districts.

India: Leptospirosis

Six people have tested positive for leptospirosis, the dreaded bacterial infection, in the last few days in the city of Pune, doctors said on Aug. 3. The condition of one of them, a woman, is critical.

"The woman is a homemaker from Kasba Peth (the oldest residential sector in Pune), whose liver and lungs have been severely affected. At a time when our wards and intensive care units are filled with patients infected with H1N1, dengue and COVID-19 cases, leptospirosis is one more addition," said KEM hospital's senior physician Dr. Rajesh Gadia. Dr. Gadia has come across 4 patients with a lab-confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis in the last few days. "One was a 40 year old mutton shop operator from Kondhwa," he said. Two other patients were from Somwar Peth.

Leptospirosis, a disease often associated with farmers and animal handlers, has left 6 unwell and one among them critical in the city. "Finding cases in the city areas is considered unusual. But in view of the presence of stray animals on the city's roads and rodents in the sewage, citizens can come in direct contact with water or food contaminated with animal urine and feces, resulting in leptospirosis," said Gadia.

Kazakhstan: Brucellosis

Quarantine has been introduced in a village of the Akmola oblast, due to an outbreak of brucellosis in which more than 2 dozen sheep in the village Petrovka became infected. The presence of the dangerous disease was established by laboratory tests. Restrictive measures have been introduced in the village, Liter.kz reports with reference to Khabar 24.

Now a state anti-epizootic delegation is working in Petrovka. The livestock will be tested every 15 days. Veterinarians say that the uncontrolled import of livestock is the cause of the outbreak of the virus in the village.

"The reason is the failure to notify the veterinary service about the import of livestock. Also, failure to carry out the required quarantine measures upon delivery. That is, quarantine is imposed by the veterinary service and [stock are] examined for brucellosis and other diseases. This has not been done, since they did not notify" said the head of the regional veterinary department, Talgat Zhunusov.

India: Japanese Encephalitis

As the flood water recedes after unprecedented rain in Assam, the fear of Japanese encephalitis is looming large in the state. Usually, when flood-affected people go home from relief centers, the risk of mosquito and waterborne diseases is high.

Since the outbreak of the disease, 52 people have died so far, according to the National Health Mission in Assam. On Aug. 2, 4 people died in Nagaon district, which is one of the worst affected districts of Assam. A total of 305 people were detected with the mosquito-borne disease in one month.

According to state health officials, besides Japanese Encephalitis, acute encephalitis syndrome has killed 16 people this year and there are 143 cases so far. The state health department has taken steps to create awareness and has undertaken various preventive measures.

Ghana: Marburg Virus Disease

A child who contracted the highly infectious Ebola-like Marburg virus in Ghana has died, a World Health Organization official said on Aug. 2. The death brings the total number of fatalities in the country to 3 since Ghana registered its first ever outbreak of the disease last month.

The outbreak is only the second in West Africa. The first ever case of the virus in the region was detected last year in Guinea.

The virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through direct contact with bodily fluids, surfaces and materials, WHO said.

The dead child, whose gender or age were not disclosed, was one of 2 new cases reported last week by WHO. "Last week I mentioned the 2 additional cases. One is the wife of the index case and the other one is the child of the index case and the child unfortunately died, but the wife is still alive and improving," WHO doctor Ibrahima Soce Fall told reporters. The Ghanaian health ministry has only reported 3 confirmed cases and further testing remains to be done on a 4th suspected case, Soce Fall said.

India: African Swine Fever

The African Swine Fever (ASF) has now spread to wild animals in Mizoram, and it appears that vaccination is the only option left to contain the outbreak of the killer pig disease, a senior official said on Aug. 6. The state government has decided to write to the Centre requesting it to import vaccines against the viral disease from Viet Nam, animal husbandry and veterinary department joint director (livestock health) Dr. Lalhmingthanga told PTI.

"Samples extracted from carcasses of wild boars found in 2 forest areas in Champhai district were sent to the National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases in Bhopal. It has recently confirmed that they died of ASF," he said. Carcasses of 2 female wild boars and a piglet were found in a jungle about 6 km from Leisenzo village in Champhai district on July 19. Cadavers of wild pigs were also found in a forest in Samthanga area in the same district, he said.

Earlier, ASF was reported only from farms and households in the north eastern state. "It is now believed that the disease cannot be eradicated through the existing containment measures being taken according to the National Action Plan, as the outbreak is now considered endemic," Lalhmingthanga said. He said that vaccination is the only solution to contain the outbreak right now. "Vaccines (against ASF) are available in Viet Nam, but the Center's approval is required to import them," the official said.

Venezuela: Leptospirosis

Doctors from the Luis Razetti Hospital in Barinas say that 5 people have been admitted to the health center allegedly infected with leptospirosis. They contracted the disease after bathing in a lagoon in the town of Boconoito, Portuguesa State.

Patients are under observation, due to the deadly effect of this disease. The doctors took samples for evaluation at the National Institute of Hygiene in Caracas. While leptospirosis is being confirmed, patients are given preventive treatment in search of their recovery, reported La Patilla.

At the Razetti Hospital in Barinas, the death of a young doctor due to hemorrhagic fever was also confirmed, according to epidemiologist Cecilia Chávez, who was asked for an explanation on how this disease is spread, which is also deadly.

Despite the cases that were registered in the 1st health center in Barinas, the authorities of the Luis Razetti Hospital have not made an official statement to alert the population about what they should do to avoid more infections, especially in the winter season.

United Kingdom: Avian Influenza

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Wales has confirmed that a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has reached Grassholm Island off the Pembrokeshire coast after a spate of gannet deaths.

The island is home to the world's 3rd largest colony of the bird species, with 36,000 pairs. It is also one of only 2 gannet colonies in Wales.

In recent months, HPAI cases have been identified in other parts of England and Wales.

The avian charity said it has been "living in hope" that Grassholm would manage to avoid the spread of the disease.

However, testing by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has confirmed the bird population on Grassholm has been affected by the influenza strain, following a spate of suspicious gannet deaths.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

Vaccination of livestock against anthrax began in Bakai-Ata district of Talas region, the district administration said. The district department of veterinary and phytosanitary inspectorate is conducting vaccination.

"Cattle vaccination was carried out in Bakai-Ata, Oro, Boo-Terek villages. Anthrax was reported in the neighboring district, which borders these rural municipalities," the statement said.

Anthrax foci exist in Bakai-Ata, Ak-Dobo, Shadykan, and Boo-Terek villages. Soil samples from there are tested twice a year. The last safety check was conducted this spring.

Dogs are also vaccinated against rabies and echinococcus, the report says.

Taiwan: Japanese Encephalitis

The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported Aug. 5 three more confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan, from Kaohsiung City, Changhwa County, and Yunlin County.

This brings the country total to 13 in 2022.

Uzbekistan: Anthrax

In the Syrdarya region, a case of anthrax infection in humans was detected. The Service for Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare and Public Health (SES) stated that there is no reason for concern, a Podrobno.uz correspondent reports.

The Service for Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare and Public Health confirmed the detection of anthrax but emphasized that "at present, the epidemiological situation is stable and there is no cause for concern. In addition, with this disease, quarantine applies only to cattle and small ruminants."

"This disease differs in that it is not transmitted from person to person. The disease is transmitted to humans only in the process of slaughtering cattle and small cattle infected with this disease, as well as due to contact with raw meat," SES representatives emphasized.

Currently, veterinary workers have vaccinated cattle and small cattle on the territory of the Zaamin makhalla of the Sardoba region.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

At least 156 Filipinos have died of leptospirosis this year so far, the Department of Health (DOH) said Aug. 9. In a press briefing, DOH officer-in-charge Maria Rosario Vergeire said that a total of 1,178 leptospirosis cases have been recorded in 2022.

The DOH OIC said that the regions that have recorded the most leptospirosis cases in this most recent period were the National Capital Region (NCR), Cagayan Valley, and Central Luzon.

Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal bacterial disease that affects humans and animals alike. It is caused by the spiral-shaped Leptospira bacteria, which can be transmitted to humans through exposure to the urine of infected animals or water or soil that has been contaminated by infected animal urine.

Floods can potentially increase the transmission of the disease. "We know that every time there is a rainy season, it floods, and the public becomes more vulnerable to the illness," Vergeire said. Vergeire earlier urged the public to take precautions when wading through floodwaters: to wear boots, wash their feet after contact with floodwater, and to get checked by a healthcare professional in case of symptoms.

 

August 5, 2022

India: Japanese Encephalitis

Another 3 persons died of Japanese encephalitis in Assam on July 26, taking the toll to 44 in July, an official release said. According to the statement of the National Health Mission, Assam, 8 new cases raised the tally to 274.

All the district administrations have formed rapid response teams to deal with acute encephalitis syndrome and Japanese encephalitis.

The standard operating procedures and guidelines communicated by the National Health Mission, Assam are being followed by all the districts for detection, management, and referral of such cases, an official said.

Kyrgyzstan: Brucellosis

A meeting addressing "the results of the socio-economic development of the 1st half of 2022 for the Osh region and the tasks for the 2nd half of the year" was held.

As informed by Deputy Presidential Envoy Uristem Manapov, 95% of vaccinations and 91% of diagnostics have been completed according to the half-year plan.

"Blood samples were obtained from 1,377 horses, 54,558 cattle, 2,817 sheep and goats, and 95 dogs for brucellosis, which is dangerous for animals and humans. As a result, 235 head of cattle were diagnosed with brucellosis and slaughtered based on veterinary sanitary rules. The cattle were allowed to be slaughtered and then disposed of.

Honduras: Leptospirosis

After 8 days fighting for his life, a Venezuelan who entered the country as part of a migrant caravan died of leptospirosis and cardiorespiratory complications in the internal medicine ward of the Gabriela Alvarado Hospital.

On July 27, a citizen originally from Venezuela died. He had arrived on Honduran soil in the Trojes area, immediately asking for medical assistance. He was admitted to the hospital on July 21, presenting multiple complications.

The deputy director of the care center, Marlon Estrada, reported that "this patient was already admitted with liver and kidney failure, until July 27, he presented cardiorespiratory complications and died."

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

An outbreak of lumpy skin disease [LSD] in Rajasthan has resulted in the death of more than 1,200 bovines, with districts in western Rajasthan being the most affected, said state Animal Husbandry department officials July 30.

Officials said that the disease, which results in rashes on the skin of bovines and is highly contagious, was first noticed in Rajasthan in April but has spread to multiple districts in the past few weeks, affecting 25,000 bovines.

"The outbreak started from Jaisalmer and then spread to Jodhpur, Nagaur, Jalore, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, and Sri Ganganagar. The disease was first noticed sporadically in April, but due to its contagious nature is rapidly spreading. Lumpy skin disease results from a virus. Around 20,000-25,000 bovines have been affected so far, and around 1,200 bovines have died," said Arvind Jaitly, deputy director (Disease Control), Animal Husbandry Department.

Belgium: Avian Influenza

At least 2 foxes have died so far after being infected by the bird flu virus, the Belgian Nature and Forest Agency found after examining 25 fox carcasses. According to the agency, the animals became ill after eating sick or dead birds.

The bird flu virus is still raging on the coast. Further research should now show whether foxes also spread the virus among other mammals.

Anyone who sees sick or dead birds or foxes should report them on the influenza line for dead or sick birds, or contact the Ostend Bird and Wild Animal Rehabilitation Center for dead foxes.

United States: Legionellosis

Napa County Public Health is investigating an outbreak of legionnaires' disease cases in Napa County, Calif. It is aware of 9 confirmed cases of legionnaires' disease, 2 suspected cases, and 1 probable case for a total of 12 cases. All individuals have been hospitalized, and no fatalities have been reported at this time.

The cases were reported to Napa County Public Health. The cases reside in the City of Napa and in Calistoga. Napa County Public Health is working with the California Department of Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Napa County Environmental Health Branch of the Planning Building and Environmental Services Department (PBES-EH) to investigate and mitigate the outbreak.

"This is a continuing investigation," said Dr. Karen Relucio, public health officer and deputy director of health and human services. "As part of the investigation, PBES-EH is conducting environmental investigations to identify possible sources of exposures to the bacteria, conducting environmental sampling for legionella, and recommending environmental remediation strategies to prevent further transmission of legionella."

Croatia: Anthrax

So far, 15 people have been infected with anthrax -- there have been no new cases in the past week. The Veterinary Inspection of the State Inspectorate (DIRH) is participating intensively and carrying out activities on pastures affected by the disease. More than 3,000 animals have been vaccinated.

Although it is common for anthrax to appear after heavy rains, the epidemiologist of the Croatian Institute for Public Health, Vesna Višekruna Vučina, said that anthrax spores can survive in the environment for a very long time. "This is a little unusual today, but the source of the infection is currently being searched for," she said, commenting on the situation in Lonjsko Polje.

In addition to the animals, 15 people who were in contact with them also became infected, all diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax. "It is, in a way, the mildest form of this disease and generally has a favorable course. It is treated with antibiotics," she noted, adding that there are generally no long-term consequences for those infected.

More than 3,000 animals were vaccinated. There have been no new livestock diagnoses since July 21, so it is hoped that the adopted measures are effective, which raises optimism. "The situation is under control, vaccination is coming to an end and we should be optimistic," Tatjana Karačić, director of the Directorate for Veterinary Medicine and Food Safety from the Ministry of Agriculture, said.

Brazil: Yellow Fever

A positive case of yellow fever has been recorded in Pará de Minas. The municipal government informed TV Integração that the patient is a 67 year old man whose work involves traveling. The State Department of Health (SES-MG) said that it awaits notification from the Municipality about the case.

The suspicion is that the man contracted the disease on one of his work trips. The patient is doing well, and all necessary protocols have been adopted. The disease would have been diagnosed in June, when he underwent tests in a private laboratory in Belo Horizonte.

The Health Department of Para de Minas says that it has intensified actions to prevent the disease, as well as vaccinating the population.

United States: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A deadly rabbit disease has been detected in Minnesota. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health says 4 of a Hennepin County family's pet rabbits died, and tests confirmed the presence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 [RHDV2] in one of the carcasses. A news release says the remains were submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in late July because the positive rabbit was lethargic, quiet, and limp before it died.

The Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory spotted signs of the disease in the remains and sent samples to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, which confirmed RHDV2 was present. The Board of Animal Health says the deadly illness is highly contagious among both domestic and wild rabbits, but there is no risk to humans.

"There is a vaccine available for RHDV2, and we encourage rabbit owners to talk to their veterinarian about getting pets vaccinated," said senior veterinarian Dr. Veronica Bartsch. "Whether your rabbits are vaccinated or not, you should always call your veterinarian right away if you notice any signs of illness."

Georgia: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax has been identified in a village in the Kvemo Kartli region in eastern Georgia, the National Food Agency reports. The department received information about the death of 2 head of cattle in the village of Zemo Karabulakh, Dmanisi municipality. Agency veterinarians immediately went to the site, took pathological material, and examined it in the laboratory. "As a result of laboratory tests, the anthrax disease was confirmed," the ministry said in a statement.

The dead cattle were burned and buried, disinfection work was carried out, and preventive vaccination of animals is being carried out along the surrounding perimeter. Also, in agreement with the local government, a quarantine was announced on the territory of Zemo Karabulakh, which means a ban on the movement of livestock, the sale of animals at fairs, and the consumption and sale of livestock products in the quarantine zone.

National Food Agency veterinarians annually vaccinate up to a million animals against anthrax. In 2021, the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia reported that the incidence of anthrax among animals in Georgia was 90% lower than in 2013.

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis

Tulare County, Calif., Public Health has confirmed a human case of St Louis encephalitis virus. Officials say it's similar to West Nile, and both are transmitted by the same type of mosquitoes. There are 5 other cases under investigation as potential encephalitis or West Nile virus infections.

Health officials say people infected with St Louis encephalitis may show flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or headache, or no symptoms at all. Severe cases can affect the central nervous system.

Officials want to remind you to drain standing water that could attract breeding mosquitoes. Use insect repellent and wear long sleeves and pants to avoid getting bitten.

Switzerland: Diphtheria

Up to 8 people living in a center in the capital, Bern, contracted diphtheria, but had no difficulties breathing, a spokesman for the state secretariat for Migration said on Aug. 2. The infected group of people were put in isolation, and more than 170 other asylum seekers, notably unaccompanied minors, are in quarantine at the center. The former hospital houses up to 350 people during the first phase of their asylum procedure.

Diphtheria rarely occurs in western Europe, where children for decades have been vaccinated against the highly contagious infection of the nose and throat. However, diphtheria is still common in developing countries, according to experts. The last known case of the infectious disease in Switzerland was recorded in 1983, the Federal Office of Public Health writes.

July 28, 2022

India: Japanese Encephalitis

In Assam on July 20, 3 more people died of Japanese encephalitis (JE), pushing the death toll to 35, an official report said. As many as 24 fresh cases of the mosquito-borne disease were detected in the state during the day, the National Health Mission, Assam, said in a statement.

Among the new cases, 4 each were reported from Nagaon and Biswanath, while Jorhat reported 3 cases. The total number of JE infections in the state has increased to 226, it said. Two deaths and 19 JE infections were reported in the state.

All the districts have formed a district rapid response team on acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE.

Standard operating procedures and guidelines have been communicated by the National Health Mission to all the districts for AES/JE case detection, management, and referral. The state annually records a surge in JE cases during this period.

Philippines: Newcastle Disease

Agriculture officials have confirmed that Newcastle disease, not avian influenza, has killed thousands of chickens and ducks here. Dr. Bryan Sibayan, Department of Agriculture-Cagayan Valley regional livestock focal person, said that the Integrated Laboratory Division has confirmed chickens and ducks died of Newcastle disease. "Newcastle disease is a contagious and often fatal disease affecting bird species and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 of the family avulavirus," Sibayan said.

Due to the situation, DA-Cagayan Valley regional director Narciso Edillo urged local government officials in cities and towns "to be proactive against bird flu and should be in close contact" with their agency. "We are here to help our local government units through our Regulatory and Integrated Laboratory Division. Together, we can contain the strains through our high-end laboratory facilities. The earlier these cases are reported, the better," he said.

Two areas -- Marabulig village in Cauayan City and Alicia town -- were earlier reported to have been afflicted with bird flu in Isabela last month, but these were already declared "safe zones" now, he added. He clarified those afflicted with bird flu earlier are already safe zones, and encouraged everyone to report the presence of any virus strain that poses danger to poultry.

India: African Swine Fever

African swine fever has been reported from 2 farms at Mananthavady in Kerala's Wayanad district, officials said July 22. The disease was confirmed after the samples were tested at the National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases in Bhopal.

An official from the animal husbandry department told news agency Press Trust of India that the samples were sent for testing after pigs at one of the farms died en masse. "Now the test result has confirmed the infection. Directions have been issued to cull 300 pigs of the second farm," the official said.

The department said steps are being taken to prevent the disease from being spread.

India: Kyasanur Forest Disease

This year, Maharashtra has reported 9 cases of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, in the Sindhudurg district. According to the state government's public health department, the KFD cases in Maharashtra have been reported mainly in the Sahyadri range.

According to the state entomologist, the cases are detected in the Western Ghat mainly due to the greater number of monkey population in that region. KFD is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted to human beings through the bite of infected ticks.

State entomologist Mahendra Jagtap said, "Shivamogga district in Karnataka is the hotspot of Kyasanur Forest Disease (monkey fever) due to cases being highly found in the Sahyadri range.” The state official also said that KFD, which is known as monkey fever, and monkeypox are 2 different diseases, and citizens should not get confused and panic.

China: Plague

This week, a Chinese man has been confirmed with the historic black death disease. According to Jimu News, on July 19, a case of black death, or bubonic plague, was confirmed in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. His family was taken to isolation and inspection overnight. The patient's community was briefly shut down on the evening of the following day. But restrictions were lifted on July 21 after sterilization was conducted.

The patient, a 45 year old herdsman living in Shanghai Temple Ranch, Inner Mongolia, started to experience fever, fatigue, unconsciousness, and diarrhea on July 12. He was admitted to a local hospital the next day and transferred to another on July 14.

According to China News Network, plus the one case detected so far in 2022, there have been 11 confirmed instances of plague over the past 4 years. The clinical manifestations of plague infection are high fever, swollen and painful lymph nodes, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, bleeding, and other symptoms of severe toxemia.

Kenya: Yellow Fever

The Government has launched a 10-day mass vaccination campaign against yellow fever disease in Isiolo County as well as parts of the neighboring Garissa County.

This follows an outbreak of the disease in parts of Isiolo in March this year, with 71 reported cases and 7 fatalities so far.

Speaking in Isiolo town July 23, Acting Director General for Health Dr. Patrick Amoth said that the mass vaccination drive will target all people aged 9 months to 60 years, even as he called on residents in the targeted areas to take advantage of the free vaccination campaign and get immunized.

He said that all the 3 sub counties of Isiolo have reported yellow fever cases, with Merti and Garbatulla being most affected.

Dr. Amoth assured members of the public of the safety of the yellow fever jab, asking them to dispel any rumors to the effect that the vaccine could harm them in any way.

United States: Avian Influenza

A pair of sick swans at Boston's Charles River Esplanade were euthanized, and 5 baby swans were later taken to a wildlife center to be evaluated, according to the city. The sick swans had avian flu, the city said, which has been blamed for other bird kills around the country this year.

The Charles River Esplanade cases were reported by multiple people to Boston's Animal Care & Control Division, which investigated and was able to capture the birds with help from the Boston Fire Department, a city representative said.

The birds were "quite ill," the representative said in a statement, and were euthanized.

A new strain of bird flu has been alarming animal experts nationwide, killing wild birds, including bald eagles, and resulting in the culling of tens of millions of farm-raised chickens and turkeys since February.

Canada: Anthrax

Parks Canada says 47 bison carcasses have so far been counted as an outbreak of anthrax continues inside Wood Buffalo National Park.

Bison are susceptible to anthrax, and past Northwest Territories [NWT] outbreaks have resulted in the deaths of hundreds of animals. Ordinarily, Parks Canada said, the Wood Buffalo herd numbers around 5,000 animals.

Not all carcasses observed may necessarily be part of the outbreak. Parks Canada says 2 field-tested cases have been identified to date, and none have been confirmed in a laboratory. "We're certainly keeping an eye on what's happening," said Jean Morin, the park's acting superintendent, on July 22, adding that the number of deceased bison did not yet appear to be having a significant impact on the herd as a whole. "As soon as the weather cools off a little bit, usually the outbreak stops," he said. "I don't expect we'll reach a number that would be significant enough that it would have an impact."

The outbreak was first reported earlier this week.

Anthrax outbreaks don't happen every summer but are triggered, Morin said, by conditions similar to those experienced over the past couple of years: fluctuations in the water table followed by heat. The park, he said, has an outbreak of note every 5-10 years.

India: Lumpy Skin Disease

The Lumpy Skin Disease [LSD], a viral infection afflicting cattle and water buffaloes has spread to 14 out of the 33 districts of Gujarat and has claimed around 1,000 livestock head in the state, Agriculture Minister Raghavji Patel said July 24.

Quoting Patel, an official release said that the LSD, caused by a virus of the capripox genus, has spread to 4 out of 5 regions of Gujarat.

The release said that cases of the infectious disease have been reported from 880 villages and that 37 121 infected cattle and buffaloes have been given veterinary treatment.

The disease has spread to 14 districts of Kutch, Saurashtra, north Gujarat and south Gujarat regions, leaving only the central Gujarat region unaffected. The minister said that the disease had claimed 999 cattle and buffaloes as of July 24.

The release said the disease, which spreads through vectors like houseflies, mosquitos, ticks etc. has spread into Kutch district and all 11 districts in Saurashtra -- Jamnagar, Devbhumi Dwarka, Rajkot, Porbandar, Morbi, Surendranagar, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Gir Somnath and Botad. Cases of the viral disease have also come to light from Banaskantha in the north Gujarat region and Surat in south Gujarat, the release further said.

Spain: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

A middle-aged man has been admitted to a hospital in Spain's Castile and Leon region [see description below] after being diagnosed with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), authorities said July 21.

The disease, which has a fatality rate between 10% and 40% according to the World Health Organization (WHO), was first detected in Crimea in 1944.

It is often found in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Asia and more rarely elsewhere in Europe. It can transmit between humans by close contact with blood or bodily fluids, the WHO says.

In the latest Spanish case, the man was first admitted to a local hospital in the northwestern city of Leon when he showed symptoms of the disease after being bitten by a tick and was later transferred to another hospital on a military plane on Thursday, the Defense Ministry said.

"He has a tick bite and remains in a stable condition, despite the clinical severity that this pathology implies," local health authorities said in a statement.

Ghana: Marburg Virus

The Ghana Health Service (GHS) has said one close contact in the new Marburg virus disease cases in Ghana reported symptoms after the maximum incubation period, the person tested positive together with his close contact but died July 21.

Currently, 40 additional contacts have been identified in the Savannah Region and are being followed up.

Of the 40 contacts, 11 are healthcare workers (HCW), and daily monitoring of temperature and general health and wellbeing are being undertaken by healthcare staff in the affected district.

The Director-General of the GHS, Dr. Patrick Kuma-Aboagye made this known at a press briefing in Accra July 24.

Ukraine: Leptospirosis

A teenager who fell ill with leptospirosis after swimming in one of the ponds of the Korsun-Shevchenkivsky district near Cherkasy, died in Okhmatdyt Hospital, in Kyiv. He showed the 1st signs of illness less than 2 weeks after swimming in the pond. The teenager was in a serious condition, the disease led to serious complications, and the doctors could no longer save the boy.

On July 11, the boy's parents went to a private clinic, where he received outpatient treatment. The parents treated their son at home.

When the schoolboy became worse 4 days later, the parents went to outpatient clinic No. 2 in Brovary, and the teenager was transferred to the infectious diseases department of the children's hospital.

The boy's legs began to fail, and the patient was urgently transported to the specialized children's hospital "Okhmatdyt " in Kyiv. Unfortunately, it was not possible to save him and on July 17, he died.

England: Avian Influenza

Thousands of seabirds have died in an outbreak of avian flu on the Farne Islands [Northumberland, England] in the worst "disaster" to hit the colonies in nearly 100 years.

The National Trust, which cares for the islands, has found more than 3,000 dead birds but estimated 10 times more may have fallen into the sea.

The islands off the Northumberland coast are home to about 200,000 birds.

The Farnes are an internationally important habitat for 23 species including puffins, Arctic terns, guillemots, razorbills, sandwich terns, and common terns.

They were closed to the public earlier this month to try to prevent the spread of bird flu.

United States: Anthrax

A confirmed case of anthrax was detected in a beef cattle herd in Sedgwick County after the producer had 7 acute deaths in the herd, according to the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA). The CSU [Colorado State University] Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory confirmed the case last week. A 2nd positive case was confirmed positive in a nearby beef herd July 26, the CDA said in a press release.

Both herds have been quarantined and are being monitored. The cattle are being treated with antibiotics and vaccinated against anthrax. The CDA and USDA are also working with county officials to ensure the infected carcasses are properly disposed of.

"Livestock producers in northeast Colorado should monitor their herds for unexplained deaths and work with their veterinarian to ensure appropriate samples are collected and submitted to a diagnostic lab for testing," said Colorado State Veterinarian Dr. Maggie Baldwin. "Producers and veterinarians should refrain from performing field necropsies on suspected anthrax cases, due to the high risk of exposure to anthrax spores and possibility for human infection."

This is the 1st confirmed case of anthrax in Colorado cattle since 2012, when more than 75 head of cattle died in a multi-premises outbreak across northeast Colorado, according to the CDA.

Iceland: Brucellosis

MAST, the food and veterinary authority, is investigating credible evidence of Brucella canis bacterial infection in a dog in Iceland. The bacteria can be passed on to humans, though this is rare. Children, pregnant women, and those with suppressed immune systems are most at risk of illness. It is the 1st time that Brucella canis is suspected in Iceland.

"Yes, it is a strong suspicion, but still a suspicion, and we are sending a sample overseas for confirmation, or hopefully not confirmation. But that can take up to 2 weeks," says MAST veterinary specialist Vigdís Tryggvadóttir.

Brucella canis is a zoonotic disease, which means it can be transmitted between animals and humans, or vice versa. The main symptoms of the disease in dogs are the death of fetuses late in pregnancy, still-born puppies, or sick puppies that die shortly after birth, as well as Epididymitis in males. The main infection route is through mating or very close contact.

 

July 22, 2022

Australia: Hendra Virus

Two people will be treated with antibodies after a horse tested positive for Hendra Virus in north Queensland earlier this month.

Queensland recorded its first case of the virus in 5 years when the positive test came back in Mackay on July 8.

The Mackay Public Health Unit identified 5 people who were in contact with the horse while it was infectious and 2 of those will receive monoclonal antibodies.

One is deemed high-risk and the other is moderate-to-high-risk, according to Mackay Hospital and Health Service.

No one exposed to the horse in Mackay has been hospitalized.

One horse on the property where the positive case was identified has already been euthanized, Biosecurity Queensland said. Chief Veterinary Officer Dr Allison Crook said the horse had not been vaccinated against the virus.

"Hendra virus infection can occur throughout the year, so it's important horse owners take steps to protect themselves and their animals at all times," she said.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

In Assam, 3 more persons lost their lives due to Japanese encephalitis [JE], taking the toll to 19 in the state, an official release said July 14.

The National Health Mission, Assam said one person each died of the infection in Darrang, Sonitpur, and Udalguri in the last 24 hours.

Besides, 23 fresh cases of Japanese encephalitis were detected in Golaghat, Jorhat, Majuli, Kamrup Metropolitan, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Lakhimpur, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Udalguri, the statement said.

Altogether 144 cases of JE have been reported in the northeastern state since July 1, it said.

Japanese encephalitis is spread by mosquitoes.

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

Stanislaus County, Ca., public health officials confirmed a case of St Louis encephalitis July 13.

The viral disease spread by mosquitoes is less common than West Nile virus, an endemic illness that generates attention every year in the Central Valley.

According to a county news release, an adult male suffering from neurologic illness tested positive for the St Louis encephalitis virus. It's the county's 1st case of the viral disease this year.

Officials did not know where the man contracted the illness. As of last week, neither St Louis nor West Nile viruses had been detected in the environment in Stanislaus County by mosquito abatement districts. The related viruses haven't been found in mosquito samples or dead birds, and no infections in horses.

"We are not aware whether the individual traveled out of county or not," a county spokesperson said by email.

A county health official reminded the public to protect themselves against mosquito bites, which can spread the 2 viruses.

Russia: Q Fever

At least 19 people have tested positive for Q fever this year in Rostov Oblast, a Russian region that borders Ukraine, according to state-affiliated media. While the farm-animal-borne infection can often be harmless to humans, it can cause serious problems for a significant portion of people.

"This year, 19 laboratory-confirmed cases of coxiellosis [Q fever] have been registered in the Salsky and Remontnensky districts of the Rostov region... The last time this disease was recorded in the region was in 2001-2002," Svetlana Nenadskaya, head of the epidemiological surveillance department of the regional Rospotrebnadzor, told RIA Novosti.

Q fever is a bacterial infection caught from infected farm animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats. It's often picked up by humans by contact with infected animal blood, poop, urine, and fur. As such, it's most often seen in people who work with animals, like farmers and vets. People with weakened immune systems are also at a heightened risk.

People can fall sick with Q fever by consuming unpasteurized milk and other dairy products. It's also a bacterium that is considered a potential agent for a bioterrorism attack.

Pakistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

The Ministry of National Food Security and Research has decided to import the vaccine for lumpy skin disease [LSD] as the so-called virus has killed more than 100,000 animals, triggering fears of milk and meat scarcity.

According to sources in the ministry, it has been decided to seek the vaccine for the disease as soon as possible, and for the purpose, the Animal Husbandry Commission -- a department of the ministry -- has started working with the agencies concerned.

They said that a summary for the import/purchase of the vaccine has been prepared and will be sent to the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of the Cabinet for its approval.

There is also a risk of milk and meat scarcity in the country due to the deaths of the animals. "If timely treatment is administered, the death rate could be less than 1%."

All Pakistan Farmers Foundation Chairman Syed Mehmood Bukhari told The Express Tribune that farmers had lost tens of millions of rupees due to the deaths of animals.

Croatia: Anthrax

Anthrax has been confirmed in dozens of cattle found dead in a nature park southeast of the Croatian capital of Zagreb, authorities said July 16.

Authorities conducted tests on the animal carcasses after reports that the cattle had developed neurological symptoms, the Ministry of Agriculture said. It said all measures were being taken to contain the outbreak in Lonjsko Polje, a flood plain by the Sava River known for its unique environment.

The state HRT television reported that 4 people also have been hospitalized with skin infections. The report said 107 cattle have died in the past 2 weeks.

"We can say that the case is under complete control and there is no room for panic," said local public health official Inoslav Brkić.

Spores of anthrax can lie dormant in the ground until they are ingested by animals or activated when the soil is disturbed by heavy rain, flooding, or drought. Outbreaks can kill a large number of animals in a short time. Infected livestock often are found dead with no illness detected.

Czech Republic: Lyme Disease

Tick season crawls onto the calendar from early spring to autumn. If you live in the Czech Republic, this is important information to know as about one out of every 10 ticks is infected with some type of the 2 commonest transmittable illnesses: Lyme disease and tickborne encephalitis [TBE].

Prevention -- wearing long sleeves and protective clothing or using tick repellant when outdoors -- and proper tick removal are important safeguards, but vaccination is becoming an increasingly common way of preventing tickborne encephalitis (a vaccine for Lyme disease is currently in development in the United States but isn't yet approved).

The tickborne encephalitis vaccine is usually administered during the winter months only; however, it can be administered year-round (although winter is recommended). Canadian Medical is now implementing a fast-track vaccination program over the summertime months. In the fast-track program, the 2nd dose is administered just 14 days after the 1st vaccine. The 3rd and final dose is given after 5-12 months.

The fast-track tick vaccine can be administered from 6 years of age but strictly upon your pediatrician's approval. Patients seeking the vaccine should only get a jab at a time when they are healthy and haven't taken antibiotics in the previous 2 weeks. Setting aside a recovery time of 48 hours after the vaccine is necessary, and a top-up vaccine is recommended after 3 years, and every 5 years after that.

India: Typhoid Fever

With the arrival of the monsoon, typhoid cases have spiked in Telangana, and health officials are blaming the beloved street food 'pani puri' for the rise in the number of reported cases. During May 2022, 2,700 cases were typhoid cases reported in Telangana and this number stood at 2,752 cases during June 2022. Dr. G Srinivasa Rao, director of public health, has referred to typhoid as "pani puri disease". The government is advising people to avoid street food, especially pani puri, during monsoon. Dr Rao also said that vendors should ensure hygiene and use only safe drinking water.

Contaminated water, food, and mosquitoes are the main causes of seasonal monsoon-related diseases such as malaria, acute diarrheal diseases (ADDs), and viral fevers reported in the past few weeks. Telangana has registered more than 6,000 cases of diarrheal disease and is also seeing an upward trend in dengue cases.

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by the Salmonella Typhi bacterium, from defiled food or water. At an early stage, typhoid symptoms include prolonged high fever, severe pain in the stomach, headache, diarrhea or constipation, and reduced appetite.

If not treated immediately, the symptoms can worsen and lead to fatigue, pale skin, vomiting blood, and even internal bleeding.

Ghana: Marburg Virus

Ghana has announced the country's first outbreak of Marburg virus disease after a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating centre laboratory confirmed earlier results.

The Institut Pasteur in Dakar, Senegal, received samples from each of the 2 patients from the southern Ashanti region of Ghana -- both deceased and unrelated -- who showed symptoms including diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The laboratory corroborated the results from the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, which suggested their illness was due to the Marburg virus. One case was a 26 year old man who checked into a hospital on June 26 and died on June 27. The 2nd case was a 51 year old man who reported to the hospital on June 28 and died on the same day. Both cases sought treatment at the same hospital within days of each other.

WHO has been supporting a joint national investigative team in the Ashanti region as well as Ghana's health authorities by deploying experts; making available personal protective equipment; bolstering disease surveillance, testing, tracing contacts, and working with communities to alert and educate them about the risks and dangers of the disease; and to collaborate with the emergency response teams. In addition, a team of WHO experts will be deployed over the next couple of days to provide coordination, risk assessment, and infection-prevention measures.

"Health authorities have responded swiftly, getting a head start preparing for a possible outbreak. This is good because without immediate and decisive action, Marburg can easily get out of hand. WHO is on the ground supporting health authorities, and now that the outbreak is declared, we are marshalling more resources for the response," said Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, WHO regional director for Africa.

Tanzania: Leptospirosis

Tanzania has confirmed 20 cases of leptospirosis, a bacterial infection that has claimed 3 lives, in the southern region of Lindi. Health minister Ummy Mwalimu said test results from samples of patients in Ruangwa were positive for the disease.

Last week, samples of people presenting with fever, nosebleeds, headache, and body fatigue tested negative for COVID-19, Ebola, and Marburg, the ministry said, calling for calm as it worked to detect it. "I would like to inform the public that sample testing from patients has confirmed the outbreak is leptospirosis field fever or 'homa ya Mgunda' as it is known in Swahili," said Ms. Mwalimu.

According to the ministry, more than 20 cases have been reported, with 3 deaths. 2 patients are currently hospitalized. Ms. Mwalimu said contact tracing was ongoing. "Up to now, no other person among contacts has shown any symptoms of the disease," she added.

According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria are transmitted from animals to humans through cuts or abrasions in the skin, nose, or eyes that come in contact with water or soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals. But, the disease cannot be transmitted from one human to another. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases.

The commonest symptoms are fever, headache, chills, cough, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, rash, red and irritated eyes, and jaundice.

India: African Swine Fever

African swine fever (ASF) has been detected as the reason behind the death of over 100 pigs in the Faizullahganj area of Lucknow. Confirming this, animal husbandry department chief veterinary officer Dr. Devesh Sharma said the post-mortem and viscera test reports have revealed the cause of death, and that ASF was not transferable from animals to humans.

Dr. Sharma said, "The reports confirm the presence of African swine fever (ASF) virus in the dead pigs. ASF is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs but does not infect or spread in humans.

Sharma added that ASF affects both domestic and feral swine of all ages.

"The only way to deal with ASF was to cull all the pigs within the 1 km area. In Lucknow's case, we can't comment on what the authorities would decide, but it's a big relief that ASF cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans," the doctor added.

China: Plague

The northwestern Chinese region of Ningxia reported a human infection with plague, state television said late on July 19. The caseload of human plague infection, a highly infectious and severe disease, is low in China, with just one in 2021 and no deaths, down from 4 infections and 3 deaths in 2020, according to data from the National Health Commission, which does not specify the types of plague for each person.

The infected person had arrived in Ningxia from an outside area, state television said. It did not provide further details. The latest case was bubonic plague, state television said. Bubonic plague is the commonest form of human plague and less severe than the pneumonia type, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early, the World Health Organization said.

Canada: Anthrax

Parks Canada says a possible anthrax outbreak among bison is being investigated in what it called a "remote backcountry area" of Wood Buffalo National Park.

In a statement this week, the federal agency said the suspected outbreak was in a southern area of the park away from visitor facilities and roads that cross the park. "Late last week, staff received mortality signals from several collared bison in the southern area of the park," Parks Canada stated. "Three bison were observed deceased in the Sweetgrass area and 2 were field tested for anthrax. The samples are being sent to a lab to confirm the results."

Since then, Parks Canada added, "More bison have been found deceased and anthrax is suspected."

Carcasses have been found at Lake One and the Trident Creek or Trident Meadows area. "So far, the deceased bison have been located in remote locations of the park and we don't foresee any threat to the public," Parks Canada stated. An area closure is in place for Sweetgrass, Trident Creek and Trident Meadows.

July 14, 2022

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Bali's Agricultural and Food Security Agency announced that it had eliminated 55 out of 63 cows on the island that have tested positive for the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). "In total there are 63 cases, 55 eliminated, leaving 8 cows," the agency's chief I Wayan Sunada said over the weekend.

Wayan explained that 38 of the diseased cows were found in Medahan Village, Gianyar, and all of the cattle had been slaughtered. The 8 remaining diseased cows, located in Karangasem and Buleleng, are set for slaughter. The official said culling is the best measure to stop the spread of the disease to other cows, with quarantine and treatment unlikely to be sufficient to contain the highly transmissible virus.

The FMD outbreak in Indonesia began in May -- decades after the eradication of the disease in 1986.

Bali authorities are currently investigating the cause behind the FMD outbreak reaching the island. The island's provincial government has placed a current ban on any cattle to be transferred to other regions in Indonesia, as well as preparing vaccines.

Ghana: Marburg Virus Disease

The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the country of Ghana reported the preliminary finding of 2 cases of Marburg virus disease and if confirmed these would [be] the 1st such infections recorded in the country.

Preliminary analysis of samples taken from 2 patients by the country's Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research indicated the cases were positive for Marburg. However, per the standard procedure, the samples have been sent to the Institut Pasteur in Senegal, a WHO collaborating centre, for confirmation. The 2 patients from the southern Ashanti region -- both deceased and unrelated -- showed symptoms including diarrhea, fever, nausea and vomiting. They had been taken to a district hospital in Ashanti region.

Preparations for a possible outbreak response are being set up swiftly as further investigations are underway.

If confirmed, the cases in Ghana would mark the 2nd time Marburg has been detected in West Africa. Guinea confirmed a single case in an outbreak that was declared over on 16 Sep 2021, 5 weeks after the initial case was detected.

India: Japanese Encephalitis

At least 8 people have died of and 82 infected with Japanese Encephalitis [JE] in flood-hit Assam in the past 9 days. This has prompted the health department to ask district authorities to constitute District Rapid Response Teams (DRRT) and to keep a close watch on the situation.

Japanese Encephalitis and Malaria kill many people in Assam every year, specifically during the monsoon flood season which usually starts in May and stretches to October.

According to the National Health Mission (NHM), since July 1, at least 8 people have died and 82 people have fallen ill after being infected by the vector-borne disease.

Assam Health Department's Principal Secretary Avinash Joshi and NHM Director Dr MS Lakshmi Priya on Saturday [9 Jul 2022] conducted a meeting through video conferencing with district authorities and asked them to constitute DRRTs to deal with the situation.

Australia: Hendra Virus

Queensland has recorded its 1st case of Hendra virus since 2017 after a horse tested positive in Mackay.

Biosecurity Queensland said the result was confirmed July 8 and the horse was euthanized after its condition deteriorated rapidly.

It isolated the property as staff worked to identify the source of the virus and ensure humans had not been exposed.

"Tracing and risk assessments have been undertaken on other animals on the property," Biosecurity Queensland's chief veterinary officer, Allison Crook, said.

"We are working with the property and horse owners to ensure the risk is contained on the property."

The horse having tested positive had not been vaccinated against Hendra.

Israel: Leptospirosis

Two people were diagnosed with a bacterial disease named leptospirosis July 8 after visiting rivers in the north, the Health Ministry reported. Three people have died this year from leptospirosis that they caught in water sources in the north.

Earlier this week, the Health Ministry and the Environmental Protection Ministry warned the public that water sample testing from some of the rivers in the north had turned up concerning results and that entering those waters could be dangerous.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

In a follow-up on the anthrax outbreak in Sierra Leone, as of June 17, a total of 6 anthrax cases were reported including 5 confirmed cases and one probable case. The majority of them are among the age group of 15 years and above (43%) followed by 12-59 months (29%), 0-11 months (14%), and 5-15 years (14%).

The Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone has declared an outbreak of human anthrax in the country after identifying 3 lab-confirmed cutaneous anthrax cases in Karene district. An investigation was conducted as follow-up to reports of sickness and death of animals in the adjacent Port Loko district between March and April [2022], with reported consumption of meat in surrounding communities.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Cutaneous anthrax occurs when the spore (or possibly the bacterium) enters a cut or abrasion on the skin. It starts out as a raised bump that looks like an insect bite. It then develops into a blackened lesion called an eschar that may form a scab. Lymph glands in the area may swell plus edema may be present. This form of anthrax responds well to antibiotics. If untreated, deaths can occur if the infection goes systemic. As many as 95% of cases of anthrax are cutaneous.

Uganda: Anthrax

The government's failure to intervene in the outbreak of anthrax in Bududa district has irked livestock farmers. Bududa district confirmed the outbreak of anthrax in May this year after claiming one person and over 30 head of cattle.

However, more than one month and a half after the outbreak of the disease in the district, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries, and Fisheries has not provided a solution to the livestock farmers. According to the local authorities, they announced a temporary livestock quarantine with the hope that the government would swiftly provide vaccines, in vain.

Dr. Felix Odongo, the Bududa District Production Officer told URN that since the confirmed outbreak of the disease, they have not seen any intervention from the central government. He says that the district has continued to sensitize farmers to privately vaccinate their animals.

Spain: Newcastle Disease

The Junta de Andalucía's [Andalusia's] Ministry of Agriculture, Farming, Fishing and Sustainable Development has announced that 2 more outbreaks of Newcastle disease have been detected on chicken farms in Huércal-Overa, in Almeria province. Both farms are within a 3 km radius of the one where the 1st outbreak was found on June 29. One has approximately 9,980 chickens, and the other has 26,900.

The 1st symptoms were spotted July 4, and several birds died in the following days. Tests have shown that this is a highly contagious strain of the disease.

All the birds had been brought to the farms for fattening in early May, and since then they have only been taken to slaughter. There have been no other movements. An enquiry is being carried out into the possible source of Newcastle disease in these cases. Studies are being carried out into the people and vehicles who have gone on to the farm in recent weeks to see how far the contamination may have spread.

All the chickens on the farms are being destroyed at an authorized plant, together with their food and other materials which could propagate the virus. Restriction zones have also been set up around the affected farms.

Pakistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

In the crowded livestock markets set up ahead of Pakistan's Eid Al Adha festivities, shoppers this week scrutinized cows more closely than normal, looking for the ugly tell-tale signs of a devastating infection.

An outbreak of the pox-like lumpy skin disease is sweeping the nation's herds, killing or emaciating cattle and threatening ruin to farmers.

Hundreds of cattle have been killed and thousands infected, as livestock owners race to vaccinate animals before the virus spreads further.

The disease cannot spread to humans, and doctors say the meat of infected animals can still be eaten if properly cooked, but its emergence has spread alarm among buyers and sellers.

Prices of animals with proof of vaccination have risen, but many worried shoppers have switched to buying goats or sheep to celebrate the feast of sacrifice. The prices of these smaller animals have also increased.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

In the Kara-Buura district of the Talas region, 4 people showed symptoms of anthrax. Elina Kachybekova, chief physician of the regional department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision, confirmed the information to Azattyk.

According to her, they are all in the hospital and their condition is satisfactory.

"In the village of Kok-Sai, a supposedly sick cow was slaughtered, the meat was divided among about 10 families. Four people had ulcers on their hands and were taken to the district hospital. But the tests are clean, it turned out that they had previously taken antibiotics. In 3 days, they will be tested again," Kachybekova said.

She added that 53 people who had contact with the hospitalized were taken under observation. Veterinarians collected the remaining meat and burned it.

July 7, 2022

Spain: Anthrax

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA) has reported the detection of the 1st outbreak of anthrax in Extremadura in 2022.

On June 13, the suspicion of deaths of animals with symptoms compatible with anthrax was activated again, in a sheep farm, in the municipality of Navalvillar de Pela, in the veterinary region of Don Benito. The National Reference Laboratory of Santa Fe, Granada, confirmed the disease on June 22.

The farm has a census of adult animals of 447 sheep and 6 goats. Goats, which live with sheep, have not shown symptoms of anthrax. To date, a total of 12 sheep have died, which have been eliminated by deep burial with quicklime on the same farm.

There is no record of people who are affected by this disease. The farm is located in the area affected by anthrax in the fall of 2021 and did not carry out at the time the vaccination of its personnel that the official veterinary services recommended in the area.

From the date of the suspicion, sanitary measures were adopted to restrict movement, follow-up of new suspected cases, control of the disposal of carcasses and vaccination.

Germany: African Swine Fever

At first it was just a suspicion. On July 2 the bitter truth: African swine fever [ASF] has reached Lower Saxony. The Friedrich-Löffler-Institut (FLI) confirmed this, Lower Saxony's Agriculture Minister Barbara Otte-Kinast announced the news at a press conference in Hanover.

A sow farm in the municipality of Emsbüren in southern Emsland with 280 sows and 1,500 piglet rearing places is affected. After the farmer found clinical signs -- fever, lack of appetite -- in his sows and consulted his farm veterinarian, samples were sent to the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (LAVES) for examination.

The culling of the affected population took place July 3. It is being examined whether another contact farm in the Freren area needs to be culled. The farm had received piglets from the sow farmer in the past few days.

The cause of the entry is currently unclear. "So far there has been no lead," emphasized the minister. The establishment of a 10-km surveillance zone that extends into the neighboring district of Bentheim is currently being prepared. The surveillance zone will also extend to the state border of North Rhine-Westphalia.

There are 296 farms with 195,000 pigs in the exclusion zone. These are now being clinically examined with the support of LAVES employees. Blood samples are taken from suspected animals and examined for antibodies. The movement of pigs, pig products and manure into the
surveillance zone is prohibited until further notice. The grain harvest that is currently starting is still allowed, as it is not an outbreak in wild boar.

Canada: Equine Infectious Anemia

On May 25 the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance System reported 1 horse tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA) in Lesser Slave River No. 124, Alberta, as confirmed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) national reference laboratory. The horse was tested at the owner's request after having potential exposure to EIA and displaying clinical signs of the disease. The horse had recently been involved in pony chuckwagon activities.

An official quarantine has been placed on the infected horse and other equids on the property. The CFIA has recommended follow-up testing and euthanasia of positive cases and will monitor the situation to determine when the quarantine can be lifted. Biosecurity measures are strongly recommended, and the CFIA might take additional action at other properties where horses might have been exposed during pony chuckwagon activities.

China: Avian Influenza

The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is closely monitoring a human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in the Mainland, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The case involves a 58-year-old male living in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, who had exposure to poultry from the market. He was admitted for treatment on June 5. He is in critical condition.

From 2014 to date, 79 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported by Mainland health authorities.

"All novel influenza A infections, including H5N6, are notifiable infectious diseases in Hong Kong," a spokesman for the CHP said.

Travellers to the Mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets or farms. They should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry, and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry.

Australia: Diphtheria

The North Coast Public Health Unit in northern New South Wales (NSW) has reported 2 cases of the vaccine-preventable disease diphtheria in 2 children.

The 1st case is in a 2-year-old unvaccinated child who is currently being cared for in an intensive care unit (ICU) at a Queensland hospital and has received diphtheria antitoxin, antibiotics, and respiratory support.

The 2nd case is in a 6-year-old child who is a close family contact of the 1st case. The child, who was not vaccinated against diphtheria, is currently being cared for at a Northern NSW Local Health District hospital.

These are the 1st cases of diphtheria of the throat in NSW since the 1990s.

The children's close contacts have received post-exposure prophylaxis, which can include antibiotics and immunization, to reduce the risk of transmission.

Dr. Paul Douglas, Director North Coast Public Health, said the risk to the broader community is low. "However, this is a very serious disease and can be fatal, so families should be alert and review the immunization status of their children on the Australian Immunization Register or with their medical provider to ensure they are update with all vaccinations," Dr Douglas said.

New Zealand: Leptospirosis

There were 12 cases of leptospirosis (9 confirmed and 3 under investigation) notified in May, compared with 7 cases for the same month in 2021. The 9 confirmed cases ranged in age from 25 to 70 years, 8 were male and 1 was female.

Seven confirmed cases reported exposure to animals (4 due to the nature of their occupation as farmers) and 4 had contact with rural streams, rivers, or lakes. Hospitalization [status] was recorded for 7 of the confirmed cases, of which 6 (85.7%) were hospitalized.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal infection that is distributed worldwide. Although more common in tropical areas of the world, leptospirosis is also found in temperate areas. Leptospirosis is transmitted to humans by direct contact of abraded skin or mucous membranes with the urine of infected animals or by contact with wet soil, vegetation, or fresh (not salty) water that has been contaminated with infected animal urine.

Many species of wild and domestic animals (including rodents, dogs, cattle, swine, and perhaps river otters) are susceptible to chronic urinary infection with Leptospira. In carrier animals with chronic renal infections, leptospiruria persists for long periods or for life, and Leptospira bacteria shed in urine may survive in fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months.

Australia: Leptospirosis

A dog has died from leptospirosis in Canberra, the 1st confirmed case in the capital region.

The deadly bacterial infection spreads via contaminated water, affecting a dog's kidneys and liver, often leaving them too unwell to be treated.

On June 28, after being unwell for several days, a Jerrabomberra dog was referred to the Animal Referral Hospital in Pialligo, where her blood test was positive for leptospirosis. She was later euthanized.

Chad: Yellow Fever

A yellow fever vaccination response campaign was officially launched July 7 in Laï. It was during a ceremony chaired by the secretary general of the department of Tandjilé Est, Abdelaziz Tchanlan Tokama, representing the prefect.

Following the 25 confirmed cases of yellow fever in the province of Tandjilé, more precisely in the health districts of Laï and Deressia, this vaccination campaign has been launched.

In his speech for the occasion, the interim provincial delegate of Public Health and National Solidarity of Tandjilé, Dr. Adjibera Jean Baptiste, indicated that this very effective vaccine is safe to fight against yellow fever in the province of Tandjilé, leaving Chad as a whole free from yellow fever, for at least 10 years [The WHO indicates that the vaccine is effective for life].

June 23, 2022

England: Leptospirosis

Two cases of an infection, which can be caught from rats' pee in waterways [rivers or canals], have been confirmed in the South West of England. The UK Health Security Agency has revealed the cases in its quarterly report on animal-associated infections.

Two of the total of 4 confirmed cases of leptospirosis in England in the first 3 months of this year were in the South West, with one in London and one in the East of the country. The agency's report said all cases were in men aged between 28 and 69.

One was linked to canal water and 2 other patients reported exposure to rats, with one also exposed to farm animals. The agency said there were also 23 probable cases of the disease nationwide in the first quarter of this year.

Leptospirosis is also known as Weil's disease, and the National Health Service says it is rare in the UK. It is spread in the pee of infected animals -- most commonly rats, mice, cows, pigs and dogs.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Besides cattle, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has started to affect buffaloes and goats, too, in Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara [Nusa Tenggara Barat (NB)] ahead of Eid al-Adha, according to the local government.

"Currently, farm animals that have been infected with FMD are cattle, buffaloes, and goats," head of the Central Lombok Agriculture Office Lalu Taufikurahman said on June 17. Based on the latest data from the FMD Task Force, the number of cattle infected with FMD has reached 10,995, he informed. However, around 50%, or 5,442 heads of cattle, have recovered.

Meanwhile, the number of infected buffaloes has reached 112, of which 61 have recovered. As for goats, the number of infected animals has reached 60, and 16 have recovered. Thus, the total number of farm animals infected with FMD [in Central Lombok] has reached 11,167, of which 5,519 have recovered.

The disease has now spread to 102 out of 139 villages in Central Lombok, he noted. As part of anticipatory measures against the disease, the local government has shuttered all animal markets until June 20, according to a letter issued recently. "The animal market is still closed for the time being," Taufikurahman said.

Australia: Leptospirosis

The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) wants all dog owners to be aware of a very serious infection of dogs, leptospirosis, which has been detected across NSW [New South Wales] with diagnoses on the Central Coast, Central and Northern beaches areas of Sydney and more recently NSW South Coast. The AVA is suggesting all resident and visiting dogs in these areas be vaccinated against this frequently fatal disease.

Two dogs living in the St George's Basin area of the NSW South Coast were recently diagnosed with leptospirosis, the first occurrence of this disease on the South Coast. Unfortunately, they were unable to be saved, because despite appropriate treatment, it is often too late to reverse the severe damage the disease causes.

This bacterial disease affects the liver and kidneys, sometimes the respiratory system and brain. Common clinical signs may include vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, jaundice, inappetence, changed frequency of urination and nosebleeds. The bacterium is most commonly spread through contact with soil, water or vegetation which has been contaminated with urine from infected animals, commonly rats and mice. In the recent outbreak, many of the infected dogs have not survived.

"Vaccination offers protection against leptospirosis," said Dr. Zachary Lederhose of the Australian Veterinary Association NSW Division Committee.

Afghanistan: Lumpy Skin Disease

The department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock said they have recently registered 4 cases of lumpy skin disease [in Kandahar]. Lumpy skin disease [LSD] is an infectious disease affecting cattle, and its symptoms include fever, lacrimation, hypersalivation, and characteristic skin eruptions.

"I think the disease is due to trafficking of livestock through illegal paths," said Shah Wali, in charge of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock Affairs of Daman district of Kandahar province.

"The disease came from Pakistan. This is a contagious disease," said Fahim Sapai, a local veterinary doctor.

The provincial department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock said that if the central government doesn't take serious action, the virus will further affect the livestock.

United States: Avian Influenza

The first confirmed case of avian flu in a mammal in Washington state has been detected in a baby raccoon at Sacajawea Historical State Park in Pasco. It is also the first case of avian flu confirmed in a raccoon in North America, according to the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The agency is warning pet owners not to let their dogs and cats scavenge sick or dead birds or other wildlife or even interact with sick wildlife.

Four raccoon kits with apparent avian influenza were found at the park at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers earlier this month, according to Fish and Wildlife. One was tested to confirm the disease. 2 of the kits were dead, and the other 2 were obviously sick and were euthanized.

Avian flu was detected in Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, in the Columbia Basin of Eastern Washington starting in May this year in baby geese. Visitors to the park were finding dead goslings and baby geese were walking in circles, having seizures and sitting still and letting people approach them. There followed reports of more geese with avian flu across the Tri-Cities area; a mallard, a duck, and a crow in Richland; a gull at Sacajawea Park; and a sandhill crane in Connell.

Indonesia: Leptospirosis

Gunungkidul Health Office (Dinkes) in Yogyakarta has noted that in 2022 there have been 22 cases of leptospirosis, of which 4 died. "Until June there have been 22 cases of leptospirosis, 4 of whom died," said the head of the Gunungkidul Health Office, Dewi Irawaty. This is quite high, although 2017 is still the highest with 64 cases with 16 deaths.

"Indeed, now there is an upward trend and the number of cases could still increase," said Dewi
Taiwan: Japanese Encephalitis

According to Taiwan's "China Times News Network," the first local Japanese encephalitis case in Taiwan this year occurred in Tainan. Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control said that the case is of a man in his 50s in Beimen District, Tainan City, who mostly lived at home and farmland on weekdays. He had no history of domestic or overseas travel. He started to have a fever and developed lower limb weakness and changes in consciousness as well as other symptoms and was admitted to hospital. This is the 1st case of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan this year.

According to reports, Taiwan's deputy director of the CDC, Luo Yijun, stated that the man is in his 50s and had a fever and went to the clinic for medical treatment, but the symptoms were not relieved after using antipyretics. He was admitted to the emergency room and tested negative for the new coronavirus pneumonia. He suffered convulsions and coma and was admitted to the intensive care unit. He is currently hospitalized.

Luo Yijun pointed out that the main activities of the case were homes and farmland. One of the farmlands had a pig house 500 meters away, and there was an abandoned fish farm behind the pig house. A large number of vector mosquito larvae were collected, and it was concluded that the possibility of infection was high. Measures were taken to clean the environment and hang mosquito traps at the case's home and surrounding pig farms and to strengthen health education advocacy for the local people.

Russia: Anthrax

A resident of the Stavropol Territory contracted anthrax as a result of contact with calf meat. This is reported by RIA Novosti with reference to the reference center for monitoring the anthrax pathogen of the Stavropol Research Anti-Plague Institute of Rospotrebnadzor.

Earlier it became known that the disease was confirmed in a resident of the village of Rozhdestvenskaya. The woman is undergoing treatment and there is no threat to her life.

The department clarified that the meat came from an animal that was not vaccinated against anthrax in a planned manner. In addition, isolation of the sick person and those who have been in contact with her will not be required. The reference center reminded that anthrax is not transmitted from person to person.

"The circle of contact persons has been determined and medical supervision has been established for them. Everyone is healthy and has no complaints. Anthrax is not transmitted from person to person, so the isolation of contact persons is not required," the department noted.

Mongolia: Anthrax

A human case of anthrax has been reported in the western Mongolian province of Uvs, local authorities said.

“The result of a polymerase chain reaction test has revealed that a 37 year old nomadic herder from Undurkhangai soum of the province has contracted anthrax," said a statement of the provincial department for zoonotic diseases.

Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium, which occurs naturally in soil and mainly affects livestock and wild animals. People can get sick with anthrax if they have contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

The Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture and Livestock met in Bujumbura with development partners to discuss the mechanisms to be put in place to deal with Rift Valley Fever [RVF) disease and decide on possible contributions in the fight against it according to the action plan already submitted. The minister of the environment, agriculture and livestock, Deo Guide Rurema recalled that since last April, Burundi has been attacked by Rift Valley Fever disease.

At the first meeting with development partners, they set up a technical team which drew up a roadmap that outlined actions to be put forward to contain the disease, in particular the mobilization of funds, the acquisition of vaccines and the vaccination campaign.

Figures show that 13 provinces are affected by this disease; 827 cows have been infected and 323 of them have already died.

United States: Strangles

A yearling paint colt in Otsego County, Michigan, presented with a fever and the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) reported a positive test. The horse is currently recovering in voluntary quarantine and has an unknown vaccination status.

Two horses in Genesee County, Michigan, also tested positive. The 1st, an unvaccinated 6 year old thoroughbred gelding, presented with a fever, cough, lethargy, nasal discharge, and enlarged lymph nodes on [4 May 2022] and was confirmed positive, according to the MDARD. A 10 year old quarter horse mare on the same premises presented with a fever and nasal discharge and tested positive. She was also unvaccinated. Both horses are recovering in voluntary quarantine, and a 3rd horse on the property was exposed and is suspected positive.

Lastly, an unvaccinated stallion in Van Buren County, Michigan, presented with enlarged lymph nodes and the MDARD confirmed a positive diagnosis. He's in voluntary quarantine and is recovering.

 

June 17, 2022

Italy: African Swine Fever

About 1,000 pigs are to be slaughtered in the Lazio region after 2 pigs tested positive for African swine fever (ASF) on a small family farm in the Rome area.

The 2 infected pigs were killed immediately, along with 7 others on the farm, as veterinary authorities prepare to slaughter all pigs within a 10-km radius of the site, an estimated 1,000 animals.

Angelo Ferrari, the government's special commissioner in charge of tackling swine fever, has also ordered the culling of "at least" 400 wild boar in the Lazio region around Rome, reports state broadcaster RAI.

In early May ASF was detected in wild boar in the city's northern Insugherata nature reserve, prompting authorities to ban picnics and seal off bins in a "red zone", covering a large area of north and north-west Rome.

The cull, scheduled to take place within 30 days, will see 200 wild boar killed in the "protected regional areas" and 200 killed "outside these areas", reports news agency ANSA.

The city's Grande Raccordo Anulare ringroad is also set to be fenced off in the coming days, according to RAI.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) has allowed livestock infected with the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and exhibiting mild symptoms to be used for the Islamic ritual Qurbani (animal sacrifice) during Eid al-Adha.

The approval was set with the issuance of MUI Fatwa Number 32 of 2022 concerning the regulation and guideline for the implementation of Qurbani worship during the FMD outbreak.

Chairman of MUI for Fatwa Asrorun Ni'am Soleh stated here on Friday [10 Jun 2022] that Qurbani with an animal infected with FMD is declared valid if symptoms in the animal are mild.

"In my opinion, this (the fatwa) is essential to be used as a guide for the community, including those who perform Qurbani and health workers, (to provide clarity) that not all types of animals affected by FMD do not meet the requirements," he explained.

Mild symptoms of FMD include lethargy, no appetite, fever, blisters around the nails and in the mouth, though not causing limping and significant weight loss. The blisters can also be treated to prevent secondary infection.

Cameroon: Monkeypox

Cameroon has reported 28 suspected cases of monkeypox with 2 deaths from 4 districts across 3 regions since the beginning of 2022. Of these cases, 3 cases have been laboratory confirmed from Kumba Health District in the South-West (2) and Ayos Health District in the Centre Region.

The Central African Republic has so far recorded 17 suspected cases of monkeypox as of May 19, including 8 confirmed cases and 2 deaths (CFR 11.8%), for 2022.

In the Republic of the Congo, since the beginning of 2022, 7 suspected cases with 3 deaths have been reported from Impfondo District in the country's northern department of Likouala on the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central Africa. Samples from 2 cases sent to the National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB) Laboratory in Kinshasa on 12 Apr 2022 were laboratory confirmed.

Kenya: Anthrax

A total of 3 people have been admitted to the same Kakamega hospital after eating meat from an infected cow. One of them has reportedly observed bitter reactions to his body after enjoying the meat.

Residents are now being urged to go to the hospital if they begin to experience any symptoms of anthrax. Anthrax is a highly contagious disease that commonly affects forest animals and wildlife around the world.

The hospital's clinical officer Brian Angadi confirmed the incident, saying the 3 patients ate meat from a cow with anthrax. "All 3 were diagnosed with anthrax. We made every effort to treat them and we managed to get them out of danger," Angadi told The Standard. However, he has warned of the possibility of receiving more patients as some residents of the village received a share of the meat.

Malawi: Monkeypox

Chiradzulu District Hospital has sent to Lilongwe samples taken from a suspected monkeypox patient who died June 10 at Chiradzulu District Hospital.

According to a report from Chirazulu District Health Office, the patient was taken to the hospital and presented with a painful rash all over the body with itchy and burning sensation. The rash started from the head and spread to all parts of the body. The patient also had fever and body and back pains

The symptoms started on June 5. The patient was admitted at the Chiradzulu district hospital, taken to the isolation ward after suspecting monkeypox, and pronounced dead the next morning.

From interviews, health workers noted that there was no known case of monkeypox from the area where the suspected case was coming from, and he had no travelling history to link with the infection transmission or that it has been imported from somewhere. The patient was working as a farmer, and there was no person at home with the same condition.

Philippines: Japanese Encephalitis

The Department of Health (DOH) 5 Bicol in southern Luzon reported Saturday on 7 Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in the region from January to the end of April.

Camarines Sur had 4 cases; Sorsogon had 2; and one in Manito, Albay.

JE is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. About 68,000 clinical cases are reported annually. It usually occurs in rural or agricultural areas, often associated with rice farming.

JE virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

June 10, 2022

Israel: Avian Influenza

Two wild birds were found to be infected with the H5N8 strain of avian influenza in May in Israel, according to an Agriculture Ministry report to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

According to the report, a Eurasian Sparrowhawk was found near Petah Tikva and tested positive in mid-April. In early May, a White Stork which was found near Ruhama in southern Israel tested positive for the bird flu.

The Agriculture Ministry has not issued a statement about the new cases. No new cases have been reported since, although the report described the event as "ongoing." Before these 2 cases, the last time the H5N8 strain was reported in Israel was April 2021.

The new cases come just months after a large outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza swept through Israel during the winter with the last outbreak reported in February in northern Israel.

Philippines: Leptospirosis

The Department of Health (DOH) in Eastern Visayas has reported 53 cases of leptospirosis since Jan. 1. Of these 53 individuals, 8 died, according to Jelyn Malibago, the regional information officer of the DOH. "We expect more cases of leptospirosis as the rainy season begins," she said.

The health official urged the public not to wade in flooded areas, to avoid getting the bacteria mainly from the urine of [infected] animals like rodents. If one is to wade in flood water, Malibago said he or she should wear boots and gloves; drain potentially contaminated water; control rodents in the house by using traps or poison; and maintain cleanliness.

Of the 53 cases [in Eastern Visayas Region], 22 were from Leyte; 10 from Samar; 7 each from Southern Leyte and Eastern Samar; 5 from Northern Samar; and 2 from Biliran.

The 3 deaths due to leptospirosis in Leyte were from Tacloban City [provincial capital city of Leyte], Abuyog, and Hilongos; 2 deaths from the towns of Padre Burgos and Hinunangan in Southern Leyte; 2 deaths from Basey and Catbalogan City in Samar; and 1 death from Maydolong town in Eastern Samar.

Mexico: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

So far this year, 5 minors have died from rickettsiosis, caused by a bacterium of the Rickettsia genus, which is related to the bite of infected ticks. "The cases (of rickettsiosis) that have been detected have died, 5 so far this year," reported Luis Alfonso Carrillo González, director of municipal Public Health. "They were minors and that is what is striking," he explained.

According to sources from the Coahuila Health Secretariat, 4 of the deceased patients were from Saltillo, and 1 was from San Pedro. Carrillo González pointed out that children and young people are generally the most exposed to contracting rickettsiosis due to having more contact with animals and vacant places, although anyone is susceptible to becoming infected.

The deaths in the Coahuila capital represented a significant increase in mortality from this disease, since in previous years there were 1 to 2 deaths in the year, out of a total of 10 or 12 infections, according to the head of the Directorate of Municipal Public Health.

Meanwhile, the State Secretary of Health reported that last year, 6 people infected with rickettsia died, for which he highlighted the importance of the State Program for the Prevention and Control of Rickettsia, mainly in Saltillo, Parras, and San Pedro, where in recent years this type of patient has been recorded for years.

United States: Tularemia

The Pueblo County, Colorado, Health Department has confirmed the 1st human tularemia case in 2022 in a child.

"Pueblo residents, especially those living in Pueblo West, are advised that tularemia-causing bacteria may be present in some of the mammals, especially rabbits, rodents, and hares, and on the ground where these animals may be active," said Alicia Solis, program manager at the Pueblo Department of Public Health and Environment. Solis added, "Human tularemia cases are rare, but some activities may increase the risk of developing the diseas

 These activities may include inhaling or drinking contaminated soil or water, having direct skin contact with infected animals, or being bitten by a tick or deer fly."

Tularemia, also known as "rabbit fever," can reportedly be spread through soil contaminated "with the droppings or urine of sick animals such as rabbits, and tularemia-causing bacteria can aerosolize and be inhaled when a person mows, blows leaves, or turns up soil. Because tularemia is known to be in Pueblo County, precautions to prevent tularemia infection should always be taken, especially when mowing weeds or grass and when soil is disturbed," emphasized Solis.

United States: Avian Influenza

A backyard flock of birds in Snohomish County, Washington, is the latest to test positive for the highly contagious avian influenza, also known as bird flu, the Washington State Department of Agriculture announced.

The detection was confirmed May 27, bringing the total number of counties where the flu has been found to 9.

WSDA continues to urge flock owners to protect their healthy flocks, particularly by keeping them away from wild waterfowl.

"In all backyard detections, we've seen significant exposure to wild waterfowl," said Washington State Veterinarian Dr. Amber Itle.

According to WSDA, flock owners can take steps to avoid introducing diseases to their flocks, such as practicing good biosecurity, washing boots or shoes before entering and when leaving a chicken coop, and sanitizing equipment used around poultry.

Congo: Plague

A first case of pneumonic plague was recorded June 2 in the health zone of Rethy, in the territory of Djugu (Ituri). The victim is a man in his 40s living in Belendju village in the Lokpa health area. Following a few symptoms presented, such as fever and headaches, he was taken to the general reference hospital in Rethy, where he was placed in isolation and under treatment. The rapid test carried out revealed the case of pneumonic plague, said doctor Jean de Dieu Dheda.

This situation worries the local health authorities, because this case comes on top of the bubonic plague, which is not yet under control. Indeed, this entity is already facing the epidemic of bubonic plague triggered since March 2022 with 5 deaths out of the 217 positive cases notified. For the moment, the health zone is faced with problems of stock shortages of drugs for the treatment of patients. Apart from this need, explains this doctor, the medical profession lacks protective equipment as well as other items.

The head doctor of the Rethy health zone pleads for assistance in medicines and protective equipment, in order to cut the chain of spread of these diseases.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

Rift Valley fever (FVR), an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that is most commonly seen in certain animals such as cattle, bison, sheep, goats, and camels and that can also cause disease in human beings, has been declared in Burundi since the end of April.

The situation is still under control, but after a month there are cases in 8 provinces of the country, and if the epidemic were to spread further, the consequences would be dramatic. Livestock farming is an essential sector in Burundi, the crisis of which affects all other economic and social spheres, because it affects nutrition and general confidence.

As economist Faustin Ndikumana notes, "In Burundi, a rural and densely populated country, the room for maneuver is reduced in terms of diversification of the economy, so if farming and nutrition are severely affected, as we fear, the situation will risk being dramatic, since even now, food inflation is a nightmare for families."

Canada: Lyme Disease

Officials in Quebec's Eastern Townships are warning of a spike in ticks carrying Lyme disease, putting residents and visitors at high risk of exposure.

In 2021, the number of people infected with the disease in the region doubled compared to the year before -- 387 last year compared to 157 in 2020 -- and more than half of the people infected with Lyme disease in the province contracted it in the Eastern Townships.

"This is a serious problem, and I think that the population must take it seriously," said Bromont Mayor Louis Villeneuve. "The tick is here, we have to live with it, we have to be careful."

At a news conference held in Bromont, public health officials said the disease is spreading rapidly, affecting the regional county municipality of Le Granit as well as towns like Windsor and Val-des-Sources. "These were towns that were not very affected before," said Dr. Geneviève Baron, a medical advisor for public health in the Eastern Townships and a member of the Canadian Lyme Disease Research Network.

Nepal: Scrub Typhus

In the last week alone, at least 21 scrub typhus cases have been detected at the laboratory of Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH), Kathmandu, Nepal. Samples were sent from different hospitals in Kathmandu, from those who presented with fever or symptoms that look similar to scrub typhus.

Scrub typhus is often seen at STIDH between July and October, with a peak in September, meaning scrub typhus probably has started spreading in Nepal, and thus, cases are expected to increase in the coming days or weeks.

Kyrgyzstan: Tick-borne Encephalitis

In Bishkek, 5 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were registered, the Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance reported.

According to it, a total of 312 people turned to medical help with tick bites, and 19 of them received immunoglobulin. Among residents of the city of Bishkek, 5 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were registered, and all patients received treatment and were discharged from hospital.

The center recalled that tick-borne encephalitis is an acute infectious viral disease with a primary lesion of the central nervous system. Consequences of the disease range from complete recovery to health disorders leading to disability and death.

The causative agent of the disease (arbovirus) is transmitted to a person in the 1st minutes of sucking by a tick infected with the virus along with anesthetic saliva.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

Northern Territory Health is urging Territorians and visitors to take steps to protect themselves from Japanese encephalitis (JE) after an increased number of feral pigs have tested positive for the disease in the Top End in recent days.

Medical Entomology Unit director Nina Kurucz warned that JE is a serious disease carried by mosquitoes capable of infecting humans and animals.

"The highest risk period for being bitten by an infected mosquito is after sundown within 3.1 miles of wetlands where feral pigs and water birds potentially infected with JE are present, Kurucz said.

She said that 44 feral pigs infected with JE have been recorded in Victoria Daly, Litchfield, Marrakai-Douglas Daly, and Cox-Daly region and the Tiwi Islands since March this year.

"The best way to prevent JE and other mosquito-borne viruses is to avoid getting bitten," Kurucz said. "It is recommended people wear protective light-colored clothing with long sleeves, long trousers, and socks in areas where mosquito bites are likely. People should also use a protective repellent containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalypt."

Denmark: Listeriosis

Eight people in Denmark have been infected with Listeria in the space of 2 weeks and 3 have died. The Statens Serum Institut, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, and DTU [National] Food Institute are investigating to try and find the source of the outbreak.

Between May 13-29, 5 men and 3 women became infected with the same type of Listeria. Patients range from 33 to 93 years old and all of them had an underlying disease or other immune system issue prior to infection that made them particularly vulnerable. 2 had meningitis, 5 had sepsis, including a pregnant woman, and 1 had a cerebral abscess.

All 8 have been hospitalized and 3 people died within 30 days of the sample being taken. 7 of them are from the Hovedstaden region of the country.

Whole genome sequencing found the strains were closely related and of the sequence type (ST) 37. The Statens Serum Institut is responsible for sequencing isolates from patients and interviewing them or their relatives to identify the possible source of infection.

 

May 26, 2022

Uganda: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax disease has been reported in Bududa District. This follows the death of 10 cows in Bumabara village, in Bunatsami sub-county.

The Bududa District agriculture officer, Dr. Felix Odongo, says that tests carried out by the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed the disease. He says one person succumbed to the disease, and 13 others are undergoing treatment after eating meat from an infected cow. He adds that they have tentatively halted the sale of animals in the open market and movement of animals in and out of the district. Augustine Wamini, the Bunatsami Sub County councillor, noted that the incident has caused fear among the residents because meat from infected animals was being sold in the markets.

According to WHO for Animal Health, infected animals may present with high fever, muscle tremors, and difficulty breathing seen shortly before the animal collapses and dies. Unclotted blood may exude from all the natural openings, and the body may not stiffen after death.

Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

The Kurdistan Region has recorded a second infection with "hemorrhagic fever" in a citizen of Sinjar district in Nineveh Governorate. Zakho health director, Dr. Shaker Abdel Rahman, said in a statement to Kurdish media that "a resident of Sinjar district was confirmed to have hemorrhagic fever, after he was suspected of hemorrhage due to the bleeding he was suffering from."

Abdul Rahman added, "the citizen was sent to Zakho in the beginning, and then he was sent to Dohuk, where the hospital sent his samples to the Baghdad Central Laboratory." He explained that "the affected person owns sheep and livestock, as he was suffering from some symptoms, and he was rushed to sleep in Zakho Hospital, and we suspected that he was infected, before it was confirmed."

It is noteworthy that this is the 2nd case of hemorrhagic fever in the Kurdistan region, and the 1st was recorded in Erbil a few days ago.

Kazakhstan: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Since the beginning of the year, 205 people have suffered from tick bites in Qyzylorda. Of these, 3 residents of the city were examined for suspected Crimean-Congo fever, Kazinform's correspondent reports.

"The diagnosis of the first patient was revealed through laboratory, epidemiological and clinical studies. The diagnoses of the other 2 patients have been changed due to the fact that the results of laboratory tests were negative," commented Aiman Zhanakhaeva, spokeswoman for the Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Control of the Qyzylorda region.

Earlier it was reported that more than 80 children sought medical help after being bitten by ticks in North Kazakhstan region. More than 800 children were bitten by ticks in the Almaty region, and one probable case of Crimean-Congo fever was registered in Shymkent.

United States: Legionellosis

An outbreak of legionnaires' disease has been reported in a Bronx neighborhood, health officials said May 20.

According to the city Department of Health, 4 people in the borough's Highbridge neighborhood have been diagnosed with the disease, which is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria that forms in warm water. Other individuals are awaiting test results.

Legionnaires' is not contagious and is treatable with antibiotics if caught early, officials said.

The health department said it is investigating and "sampling and testing water from all cooling tower systems in the area of the cluster."

The Legionella bacteria typically grow in "cooling towers, whirlpool spas, hot tubs, humidifiers, hot water tanks, and evaporative condensers of large air-conditioning systems," the department said.

Those experiencing flu-like symptoms such as coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing are encouraged to get tested by their doctor. Those over the age of 50 [years], cigarette smokers, with chronic lung disease, and those with compromised immune systems are considered at higher risk of legionnaires'.

United States: Avian Influenza

A fox kit from Anoka County, Minnesota, has tested positive for a deadly, highly contagious bird flu that has killed countless wild birds this spring [2022] to the concern of wildlife specialists.

The positive case is the 1st confirmed of highly pathogenic avian influenza, or HPAI, in a wild mammal in Minnesota, according to the Department of Natural Resources [DNR].

It's not unprecedented -- 2 red fox kits in Ontario recently tested positive for the flu strain, the DNR said. They were the 1st reported cases in mammals in North America.

DNR Wildlife Health Program Supervisor Michelle Carstensen said that fox kits already were on the agency's radar, knowing their diet and their biological vulnerability. The DNR was aware of ailing fox kits turning up at a wildlife rehabilitation center in Sherburne County.

Canada: Avian Influenza

Birds at a commercial poultry farm in Abbotsford have tested positive for avian influenza, according to the British Columbia (BC) Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Detection of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus usually requires euthanization of every bird in an affected flock.

In this case, the ministry announced, the farm was put under quarantine by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and all other poultry farms within a 10-kilometerradius received notification of the outbreak.

Avian influenza has been spreading globally since late 2021, and cases in Canada this year had so far mostly affected commercial and private flocks of poultry and egg producers in Alberta and Ontario, So far, according to CFIA figures, millions of birds in Canada have either died of the virus or been culled as a result of outbreaks. Avian influenza is not a food-safety concern for humans eating cooked poultry or eggs.

The news of the latest outbreak, confirmed by the CFIA, comes after confirmed positive tests in seven small private flocks throughout the province. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, those "backyard" flocks were in Richmond, the central Kootenays region, Kelowna, and Armstrong. The Abbotsford case is the 1st farm to be affected in the Fraser Valley during this latest outbreak, the ministry said.

Fiji: Leptospirosis

The Ministry of Health & Medical Services - Fiji reports 2068 lab-confirmed cases of leptospirosis this year. A slight upward trend in cases with case numbers is noted above the outbreak threshold nationally, driven by cases in the Western Division.

Case numbers in the Western Division are increasing and remain above the outbreak alert threshold, indicating more cases than the expected number for this time of the year for this endemic disease.

The leptospirosis bacterium Leptospira spreads to humans through the urine of infected animals, such as cows, pigs, rats, and dogs. To reduce your individual risk, it is important to understand that exposure to animals, soil, mud, and floodwaters during work or recreational activities increases your risk of infection.

Important prevention measures include wearing full covered footwear at all times when going outdoors, avoiding wading or swimming in flooded waters, using clean fresh water to wash up after exposure to muddy waters, and keeping all food and drinks covered and away from rats. For workplaces, practice good personal hygiene at all times, cover cuts and wounds well, and use protective equipment, especially footwear when in flooded and/or muddy areas.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

Sierra Leone's health authorities have confirmed the first cases of human infections of anthrax, less than a week after an outbreak of the disease was reported in animals. The Ministry of Health says 3 people tested positive for the bacterial infection which was first confirmed in animals May 22 in the northern Port Loko district. A spokesman in the Ministry of Health said the human cases were detected in the neighboring Karene District*.

Harold Thomas, Communications Lead in the Directorate of Health Security and Emergencies in the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) told ManoReporters that samples from 4 people who presented with symptoms of the disease were tested and 3 came back positive for anthrax.

In Port Loko, over 200 animals have been confirmed dead due to the outbreak. Officials in the ministries of Agriculture and Health said they mounted an investigation in response to reports of several unexplained deaths of animals in Tinkabere Village in Kamasondo, Bakeloko Chiefdom. A total of 223 livestock - 91 heads of cattle, 53 goats, and 79 sheep - were eventually confirmed dead.

According to Thomas, there has been no indication of human-to-human transmission, which means that those who were infected in Karene might have gotten it from either infected animals, animal products, or bacteria spores.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

The first suspected outbreaks of FMD in Indonesia occurred in cattle on village premises in the northern and western suburbs of Surabaya. This was the 1st report to OIE of FMD in the region, although it is endemic in neighboring countries in mainland South-East Asia.

Initial clinical cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever and were treated unsuccessfully before further disease spread and mortalities were observed, so it is suspected that FMD could have been spreading in cattle on Java since mid-April. Surabaya is the 2nd-largest city in Indonesia. The diagnosis was reported to the OIE.

As of May 11, cattle in 4 districts of the East Java province (Java) and 2 districts in Aceh province (Sumatra) have been affected by FMD. There are reports of 79 outbreaks in East Java and one in Aceh.

Burundi: Rift Valley Fever

The Burundian Ministry of Environment, Agriculture and Livestock alerted on May 23 of the detection for the 1st time in the country of Rift Valley fever (RVF), with an estimated loss of at least 100 head of cattle.

"Since the end of April 2022, cases of an animal disease mainly affecting cattle with an unusual clinical picture have been reported in the provinces of Kirundo and Ngozi, in the north of the country," underlined Serges Nkurunziza, Managing Director of Breeding.

Symptoms include abortion, nasal bleeding, hyperthermia, diarrhea often mingled with blood, generalized weakness and inappetence leading to death. According to him, since the outbreak of this disease, 100 cases of cattle mortality have been recorded.

Currently, this disease has already spread to other provinces of the country, such as Kayanza (north), Karusi (center), Cibitoke (west), Bujumbura (west) and Makamba in the south of the country.

General: Monkeypox

Around 20 countries where monkeypox is not endemic have reported outbreaks of the viral disease, with more than 100 confirmed or suspected infections mostly in Europe. The outbreaks are raising alarm because monkeypox, which spreads through close contact and was first found in monkeys, mostly occurs in west and central Africa, and only very occasionally spreads elsewhere.

Countries reporting outbreaks this year include: Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.

 

May 19, 2022

United States: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

A 1-year-old spayed female rabbit tested positive for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service said May 13.

Known as RHDV2, the infection is a foreign animal disease caused by multiple virus strains. It is highly contagious and can be fatal to domestic and wild rabbits.

It cannot, however, be transmitted from animals to humans, the department said.

The rabbit death's reportedly happened May 8. A laboratory test confirmed the infection.

Another rabbit from the premises also died from what is being considered potentially RHDV2 related, the department said. Another rabbit on the premises has been quarantined and isn't showing the disease's signs

The outbreak's source has not yet been identified, and there is no evidence of infection in other locations.

United States: Strangles

On May 10, the Ohio State Racing Commission revealed that a single case of strangles had been confirmed on the backstretch of Thistledown Racing in North Randall. Three barns were placed under quarantine, and no horses were allowed on or off the grounds at that time.

The OSRC released the following update on the case to the Paulick Report on May 10:

From more than 250 swabs from the 3 quarantined barns, there was one swab that returned a suspect test for Strep. equi. That horse was located in the same stable as the first confirmed positive. The horse with the suspect test for Strep. equi was removed from the grounds and placed into isolation on the same farm as the 1st horse.

The barn that had the horse with the suspect remains in quarantine. The other 2 barns at Thistledown have been released from quarantine.

Horses are allowed to ship into Thistledown, however, once on the grounds they are not allowed to leave until the horses who are stabled in the affected barn at Thistledown complete the 2nd swab in approximately 2 weeks.

Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease which is characterized by swelling in a horse's lymph nodes around the horse's head and jaws. The swollen lymph nodes will sometimes abscess, and the abscesses may rupture and drain through the skin or into the guttural pouch, which may cause additional infection and complications.

United Kingdom: Monkeypox

In London, 2 individuals have been diagnosed with monkeypox, confirms the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA). The cases live together in the same household. They are not linked to the previous confirmed case announced on May 7. Where and how they acquired their infection remains under investigation.

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that does not spread easily between people. It is usually a mild, self-limiting illness, and most people recover within a few weeks. However, severe illness can occur in some people.

The infection can be spread when someone is in close contact with an infected person; however, there is a very low risk of transmission to the general population.

One of the cases is receiving care at the expert infectious disease unit at St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London. The other case is isolating and does not currently require hospital treatment.

As a precautionary measure, UKHSA experts are working closely with the individuals and NHS colleagues and will be contacting people who might have been in close contact to provide information and health advice.

South Africa: Lassa Fever

South African health authorities reported May 13 a case of Lassa fever diagnosed in a man from KwaZulu-Natal.

The man had extensive travel history in Nigeria before returning to South Africa. He fell ill after entering South Africa and was hospitalized in a Pietermaritzburg hospital. The diagnosis of Lassa fever was confirmed through laboratory testing conducted at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service. Sadly, the man succumbed to the infection. Currently efforts are underway to trace and monitor all possible contacts. No secondary cases of Lassa fever have been confirmed at the time of this report.

Cases of Lassa fever in travelers returning from endemic countries are reported from time to time. In 2007 a case of Lassa fever was diagnosed in South Africa. The case involved a Nigerian citizen with extensive travel history in rural parts of Nigeria before falling ill, and he received medical treatment in South Africa. No secondary cases of Lassa fever were reported in this instance.

Lassa fever is a viral infection that is endemic to the West African countries and mostly reported in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. Lassa fever is less frequently reported from Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Ivory Coast. Up to 300,000 cases of Lassa fever, with about 5,000 deaths, are recorded annually in the endemic countries. Currently there is no vaccine for Lassa fever.

The natural host of this virus in endemic countries is a rodent species called the multi-mammate rat. The rats are persistently infected and shed the virus in their urine and feces. Humans can come into contact with the virus through direct contact or inhalation of the virus in areas that are infested with the infected rats, e.g., contact with contaminated materials, ingestion of contaminated food, or inhalation of air that has been contaminated with urine droplets. Person-to-person transmission of the virus does not occur readily, and the virus is not spread through casual contact.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Minister of agriculture Mentan Syahrul Yasin Limpo said that a serotype of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus that was attacking local cattle in 6 [regencies] had been found. Therefore, the manufacture of FMD vaccine in the country will soon be accelerated.

"While waiting, the director general (DG) livestock and animal health at the Ministry of Agriculture [DG AH-MOA]) has been assigned to import vaccines. Not [a large quantity], just [while] waiting for the vaccine to be available because it takes time to manufacture. In 14 days the director general will bring it," Syahrul said in a press statement.

The DG AH-MOA, Nasrullah, added that the Commission of Veterinary Experts is currently conducting discussions, to accelerate the implementation of domestic FMD vaccine manufacture. "God willing, hopefully we can make it as soon as possible. Because we have made it before, when the FMD was released, only the serotype was different so it had to be remade again. But the instrument, the expert, is with us," he said. "Earlier, the minister said, the serotype has been found. Serotype O with strain Ind-2001, apparently this is common in South East Asia," continued Nasrullah. At the same time, he said, efforts will be made to increase the immunity of farm animals.

"This FMD is a virus so there is no cure but there is prevention. While waiting for the vaccine to be made, we import it for areas affected by FMD. If it is not exposed [animal population], we will use our own vaccine," said Nasrullah.

Sierra Leone: Anthrax

Sierra Leone has reported an outbreak of the deadly anthrax disease for the first time in almost 30 years. Authorities say cases were detected in animals in the north western region of the country, where more than 200 livestock were confirmed to have died.

The country's minister of agriculture Abu Bakarr Karim made the announcement at a press briefing on May 16. Officials say it followed reports of animals dying in Port Loko District, from where samples were collected and tested and the result came back positive for anthrax.

Anthrax is described as a serious infectious disease caused by a bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. It occurs naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals. Humans can also get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. But the disease is treatable.

Officials told journalists that no human case had been recorded so far in the Sierra Leonean outbreak, and they said they were considering instituting measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

Portugal: Monkeypox

Portugal has 5 confirmed cases of monkeypox, the Directorate-General for Health (DGS) said in a statement, noting that the country has more than 20 suspected cases of the virus. "This May, more than 20 suspected cases of infection with the monkeypox virus were identified, all in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region, 5 of which have already been confirmed by the National Institute of Health. The cases, mostly young, and all male, are stable, presenting ulcerative lesions", says the statement from the DGS.

The statement also indicates that the DGS centralizes "at this stage, all actions of detection, assessment, management, and risk communication related to these cases, through the Center for Public Health Emergencies (CESP)".

The monkeypox virus is in the Orthopoxvirus genus and causes a communicable disease through contact with animals or close contact with infected people or contaminated materials, explains the DGS.

"The disease is rare and, usually does not spread easily among humans," the statement from the health authority clarifies. "Individuals who present ulcerative lesions, skin rash, palpable lymph nodes, possibly accompanied by fever, chills, headaches, muscle pain, and tiredness, should seek clinical advice. In case of suspicious symptoms, the individual should refrain from direct physical contact [with other people]," the statement from the DGS adds which also indicates that the disease does not require specific treatment and is "usually self-limited in weeks."

United States: Monkeypox

The confirmed case poses no risk to the general public.

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) on May 18 confirmed a single case of monkeypox virus infection in an adult male with recent travel to Canada. Initial testing was completed at the State Public Health Laboratory in Jamaica Plain and confirmatory testing was completed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). DPH is working closely with the CDC, relevant local boards of health, and the patient's healthcare providers to identify individuals who may have been in contact with the patient while he was infectious. This contact tracing approach is the most appropriate given the nature and transmission of the virus. The case poses no risk to the public, and the individual is hospitalized and in good condition.

Monkeypox is a rare but potentially serious viral illness that typically begins with flu-like illness and swelling of the lymph nodes and progresses to a rash on the face and body. Most infections last 2-to-4 weeks. In parts of central and west Africa where monkeypox occurs, people can be exposed through bites or scratches from rodents and small mammals, preparing wild game, or having contact with an infected animal or possibly animal products. The virus does not spread easily between people; transmission can occur through contact with body fluids, monkeypox sores, items that have been contaminated with fluids or sores (clothing, bedding, etc.), or through respiratory droplets following prolonged face-to-face contact.

Panama: Leishmaniasis

Last week, the minister of health, Luis Francisco Sucre, reported that there has been an increase in cases of leishmaniasis in the country, according to an El Siglo report. He detailed that to date more than 240 cases have been reported, a higher number than in previous years. The Metropolitan Health Region is the one that has registered the most cases to date, with 31 people affected.

The minister reported that leishmaniasis is transmitted by a vector and occurs in some areas where they are in greater contact with nature; for example, the regional areas in Nägbe Buglé, Cerro Azul, 24 de Diciembre, and even in Guna Yala.He gave assurance that a strategy is being devised to reinforce the team to make more diagnoses and be able to attend to these people.

People with cutaneous leishmaniasis who develop clinical evidence of infection have one or more sores on their skin. The sores can change in size and appearance over time. The sores may start as papules (bumps) or nodules (lumps) and may end up as ulcers (like a volcano, with a raised edge and central crater); skin ulcers may be covered by scab or crust. The sores usually are painless but can be painful.

May  12, 2022

Iceland: Avian Influenza

On May 3 it was confirmed that the bird flu virus that has been causing all kinds of bird species both wild and domestic to succumb to the disease, is the same one that has been circulating in Europe.

Brigitte Brugge, a specialist for poultry diseases, concluded the diagnosis. "What we have seen now with research over the last 2 weeks is that these bird flu viruses are widespread in wild birds in Iceland. We have now found these viruses in different bird species," she says.

Brigitte says it is quite clear that bird flu viruses have entered the country with migratory birds this spring.

A total of 18 positive samples from dead birds have been found in 16 places all over Iceland. 7 wild bird species have been affected by the virus: barnacle goose, sea eagle, raven, greylag goose, white-fronted goose, black-backed gull, and the northern gannet.

Congo: Plague

The Rethy health zone, located in Djugu territory, Ituri province, DR Congo, continues to report cases of plague. A total of 101 suspected cases of bubonic plague with 2 deaths (case fatality rate 1.9%) have now been reported.

To date, 2 health areas continue to report human cases of plague: Lokpa at 97 cases or 96% and 1 death; Rassia at 4 cases or 3.9% and 1 death. Of the 11 villages affected, Dzavikpa remains the most affected (47 cases or 46%), followed by Nioka forest (11 cases or 10.9%).

During the week of April 18, the Uketha Health Area reported 77 dead rats in 17 households. One household in Godu village, reportedly lost its entire guinea pig farm of 50 individuals. The investigation team was able to collect a sample from a black rat that tested positive for plague using RDT (rapid diagnostic test). The response team immediately proceeded to disinsectize these households with deltamethrin.

Indonesia: Foot and Mouth Disease

A Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] outbreak has been reported in a provincial city in Indonesia, presenting an alarming escalation in biosecurity threats for the Asia Pacific region and Australia's livestock sector.

The FMD diagnosis has been made by an Indonesian reference laboratory and is yet to be formally confirmed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

Beef Central understands the Indonesian Government is in the process of collecting samples to send to an OIE world reference laboratory in England for formal diagnosis and determination of the exact strain so appropriate vaccines can be ordered.

Details of the reported incursion are laid out in an official East Java Provincial Government incident report and suggest the disease may have been spreading in cattle in and around the city of Surabaya on the large Indonesian island of Java for some weeks.

England: Monkeypox

A person in England has been diagnosed with monkeypox, the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) has said.

The patient had recently travelled from Nigeria, which is where they are believed to have contracted the infection, before travelling to the UK, the UKHSA said.

The person is receiving care at the expert infectious disease unit at the Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London.

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection which kills up to 1 in 10 of those infected but does not spread easily among people.

It is the 7th ever case of monkeypox in the UK and is the only case recorded since 2 patients were identified in North Wales in 2021.

United States: Legionellosis

Health officials have confirmed a fourth case of Legionnaires' disease in a guest who stayed at the Grand Islander by Hilton Grand Vacations in Waikiki.

The 4th case was diagnosed on April 16, the state Department of Health said. The individual with the disease is a non-Hawaii resident who stayed at the hotel. The 1st case was diagnosed in June 2021, followed by another in early March and a 3rd case in early April.

"Legionnaires' disease can potentially have severe consequences, and we encourage anyone who developed symptoms following a stay at the Grand Islander to contact a physician and DOH," said State Epidemiologist Dr. Sarah Kemble in a statement. "We are encouraged that the Hilton has brought in additional experts and is stepping up efforts to pinpoint potential sources of contamination and treat water sources as a precautionary measure."

United States: Avian Influenza

The Iowa Department of Agriculture is confirming a new case of the bird flu in Bremer County.

This backyard flock is the 2nd confirmed case of HPAI in Bremer County, Iowa. The 1st case was in a commercial turkey flock.

Officials say flock owners should prevent contact between their birds and wild birds and report sick birds or unusual deaths to state officials.

This brings the number of detections in Iowa up to 19. The following is the up-to-date list of commercial and backyard HPAI detections in Iowa:

Italy: African Swine Fever

African swine fever has been found in a wild boar in Italy's capital Rome, reported Reuters, citing a statement from the regional government.

An isolated outbreak of the deadly hog disease was reported in northwest Italy at the start of the year and the Rome case was the 1st time the illness had been detected in the center of the country.

Several thousand boars are believed to live in and around Rome, foraging for food in often overflowing rubbish bins. Officials carried out tests after a dead boar was discovered in the north of the city, and found it had swine fever.

African swine fever is harmless to humans but often fatal to pigs, leading to financial losses for farmers. It originated in Africa before spreading to Europe and Asia and has killed hundreds of millions of pigs worldwide.

Algeria: Foot and Mouth Disease

Three outbreaks of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been detected in Algeria since March 28. The phylogenetic characterization of the strains in question is not yet available.

This episode comes 3 months after Tunisia detected 6 outbreaks of serotype O. The disease had been absent from Tunisian territory since March 2019. Phylogenetic analyzes of the Tunisian strains had confirmed the EA-3 topotype, with 99.4% homology with Nigerian strains identified in 2021, and 97.1% homology with the O/EA-3 strain that had circulated in Maghreb in 2018-2019. These results were in favor of a new introduction of foot-and-mouth disease from sub-Saharan Africa.

Australia: Japanese Encephalitis

In South Australian [SA] piggeries, 2 new detections of Japanese encephalitis (JE) have been reported, including in the Mid Murray.

This brings the total number of cases in SA to 9, including the detection of cases in Murray Bridge and Coorong in March.

SA Pork assures shoppers there are no food safety issues associated with eating pork meat.

The 2 latest detections of JE on properties in the Mid Murray and Loxton Waikerie local government areas align with a February infection period. JE was known to be circulating in the South Australian environment at this time.

India: Kyasanur Forest Disease

A native of Sagar taluk, found infected with Kyasanur Forest disease [KFD], died at a hospital in Manipal on May 3. The man was admitted to the government hospital at Sagar and later he was shifted to Manipal in Udupi district. However, his condition did not improve and he succumbed to fever.

The victim was a member of Aralagodu Gram Panchayat [village council]. In the period 2019-20, many cases of KFD were reported in the gram panchayat and more than 20 people died.

The Department of Health and Family Welfare has taken up surveys in the locality to identify people with symptoms of the disease.

Georgia: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Three people are being treated at the Tbilisi Infectious Diseases Hospital for a serious infectious disease -- Crimean Congo fever, said Amiran Gamkrelidze, head of the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a particularly dangerous natural focal disease characterized by fever, severe intoxication, and hemorrhages on the skin and internal organs.

According to him, the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health is actively working with the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture to ensure that livestock is properly treated. The disease was first identified in 1944 in Crimea.

CCHF is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family. Symptoms come on suddenly with fever, myalgia (muscle pain), dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back or lower back pain, headache, eye inflammation, and photophobia (sensitivity to light). There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pain in the abdomen and throat, followed by sudden mood swings and confusion. After 2 to 4 days, excitement may be replaced by drowsiness, depression, and fatigue, and pain in the abdomen may be localized in the right upper part.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

Since September, Nigeria has continued to report sporadic cases of monkeypox (MPX). The monkeypox National Technical Working Group (TWG) has been monitoring cases and strengthening preparedness/response capacity.

A total of 46 suspected cases has been reported since Jan. 1. Of the suspected cases, 15 were confirmed from 7 states - Adamawa (3), Lagos (3), Cross River (2), FCT (2), Kano (2), Delta (2) and Imo (1) - but no death has been recorded.

The 10 new suspected cases in April [2022] were reported from 7 states - Bayelsa (3), Lagos (2), Kano (1), FCT (1), Delta (1), Edo (1) and Ogun (1).

The 5 new positive cases in April [2022] were confirmed from 4 states - Lagos (2), FCT (1), Kano (1) and Delta (1).

From September [2017] to [30 Apr 2022], a total of 558 suspected cases have been reported from 32 states in the country.

Canada: Equine Infectious Anemia

On March 23, Canadian Animal Health Surveillance System officials reported the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) quarantined a Ponoka County, Alberta, premises after a horse there tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA).

An accredited veterinarian had drawn a test sample from the horse at the owner's request in preparation for export to the United States. The horse did not exhibit any clinical signs when sampling occurred.

The CFIA is investigating and has put movement controls on other contact animals on the premises. Controls will remain in effect until all disease response protocols have been fulfilled, including additional testing and ordering confirmed cases be destroyed.

Officials have recommended improved biosecurity measures to the owners and might perform trace-out activities at additional premises as required by policy.

United States: Equine Herpesvirus

Following an equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) outbreak which began on March 21 in DeKalb County, Indiana, a 3rd horse's polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results confirmed another case of EHV-1.

The remaining 8 horses suspected of having EHV-1 remain isolated at the quarantined facility by order of the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH). No additional horses among the 30 exposed have been identified as suspect cases.

Israel: Foot and Mouth Disease

According to an investigation by the organization "Israel against live shipments", an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] has been spreading in Israel among farm animals for several months. The disease affected in particular calves from the meat industry (71% of the victims).

All live shipments to Israel originate from countries that are considered "free" of the disease, in which the animals are not vaccinated against it. The disease entered Israel from the Palestinian Authority. Since the beginning of the outbreak in February, 240,000 unvaccinated calves and lambs (as of the end of April 2022) have arrived (and continue to arrive) in Israel...

The virus strain had not been isolated in Israel before, and a vaccine used by the Ministry of Agriculture's veterinary services does not protect against it. The organization calls for an extension of quarantine times and warns of sanitary and environmental hazards caused by violations of importers' procedures.

May 5, 2022

United States: Avian Influenza

The first human case associated with the H5 bird flu in the United States was detected in a Colorado man. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shared information on the case with the public April 28, adding the "public health risk assessment remains low." The CDC adds people who have job-related or recreational exposures to infected birds are at a higher risk of infection and should take appropriate precautions.

The CDC has been monitoring people exposed to H5N1 virus-infected birds since the outbreaks were first detected in wild birds and poultry in late 2021. To date, H5N1 viruses have been found in US commercial and backyard birds in 29 states and in wild birds in 34 states. CDC has tracked the health of more than 2,500 people with exposures to H5N1 virus-infected birds, and this is the only case that has been found to date. Other people involved in the culling operation in Colorado have tested negative for H5 virus infection, but they are being tested again out of an abundance of caution. Several wild birds have tested positive for the virus in Colorado.

"This is the second human case associated with this specific group of H5 viruses that are currently predominant, and the first case in the United States," part of a news release from the CDC reads. "The first case internationally occurred in December 2021 in the United Kingdom in a person who did not have any symptoms and who raised birds that became infected with H5N1 virus. More than 880 human infections with earlier H5N1 viruses have been reported since 2003 worldwide, however, the predominant H5N1 viruses now circulating among birds globally are different from earlier H5N1 viruses."

Canada: Avian Influenza

A poultry flock has been infected with a new strain of bird flu, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency said April 26.

There are now 19 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of avian flu in Ontario. The federal agency estimates 250,000 birds in the province have been impacted since the first outbreak was declared in March.

The other outbreaks closest to London are near Durham in the Municipality of West Grey, in Chatham-Kent and near Thamesford in western Oxford County. Control zones have been set up around each property, so officials can control the movement of people and birds on and off those farms.

Outside of Ontario, there are outbreaks in every province except Prince Edward Island.

In 2015, federal and provincial officials spent months containing and eventually eradicating another strain of bird flu. That outbreak was contained to 3 farms in Oxford County. About 80.000 birds, mostly turkeys, were wiped out.

China: Avian Influenza

China has recorded the first human infection with the H3N8 strain of bird flu, the country's health authority said April 26, but said the risk of it spreading among people was low.

A 4-year-old boy from central Henan province was found to have been infected with the variant after developing a fever and other symptoms. No close contacts were infected with the virus, the National Health Commission (NHC) said in a statement. The child had been in contact with chickens and crows raised at his home, it added.

The H3N8 variant has previously been detected elsewhere in the world in horses, dogs, birds and seals, but no human cases of H3N8 have been reported, said the NHC. The commission said an initial assessment determined the variant did not yet have the ability to effectively infect humans, and the risk of a large-scale epidemic was low.

Many different strains of bird flu are present in China and some sporadically infect people, usually those working with poultry. Last year China reported the first human case of H10N3.

China has huge populations of both farmed and wild birds of many species, creating an ideal environment for avian viruses to mix and mutate. Growing surveillance of avian influenza in people also means more infections are being picked up.

 Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

The Division of Communicable Diseases Control in the Dhi Qar Health Department announced unprecedented rates of [infection with Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever, and has called for the activation of veterinary measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

The local government accused the Ministry of Agriculture of not providing resources for the control of parasitic insects that carry the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Haider Ali Hantoush, Director of the Communicable Diseases Control Division, told Al-Mada that "since the middle of 2021 until today, unprecedented and unexpected rates of [the Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever have been recorded", noting that the total infections (cases) amounted to 30, including 10 deaths during the same period."

Hantoush added that "the infections have resulted in 16 cases and 7 deaths during the 2nd half of 2021, 14 confirmed cases and 3 deaths during the first 3rd of 2022," stressing that "deaths constitute a 3rd of the number of the infected." He pointed out that "infections with hemorrhagic fever increased during the past year and the current year," revealing that "the last case and death recorded in the past was in 2018, while the years 2019, 2020 and the first half of 2021 did not witness any infection."

Hantoush pointed out that "infections began to escalate during the second half of 2021 and have continued so far to record unprecedented rates." He stressed that "[the Crimean-Congo] hemorrhagic fever is a serious disease with a death rate of 40%."

South Sudan: Anthrax

There is an outbreak of anthrax infection in human beings in Warrap after laboratory analysis showed positive results, state health officials have declared.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as _Bacillus_. The disease occurs naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. People can also get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Dr. John Akol, the acting director general at the ministry, said they made the declaration after samples of 20 patients suspected of anthrax, which were taken to Uganda for further laboratory tests, were confirmed positive. Akol reveals the local authorities are in coordination with the national ministry of animal resources to contain the spread of the disease.

Some of the suspected cases under investigations were reported at Alek, Kuach North, and Payams in Gogrial West County in March [2022]. "Now the ministry of health and ministry of animal resources and fisheries in the state will work together to see the way forward to contain this disease," Akol told Sawa Sawa Network.

Germany: Lyme Disease

In Berlin, the number of reported cases of Lyme disease has increased in recent years. In 2021, 994 cases of the disease triggered by tick bites were reported to the Robert Koch Institute. In 2020, there were 959 cases, and in 2019, the number was 851 cases. "There were significantly more forest visitors in the pandemic years, so that was certainly an important factor in the increase," Berlin-based biologist and tick expert Olaf Kahl told German Press Agency.

Tick activity has not been particularly high since 2020, he said. "People have been exposed to more tick bites due to increased visits to the countryside," said the managing director of tick-radar GmbH, which conducts research projects on ticks nationwide. Fewer than 800 cases had been reported to the RKI in both 2017 and 2018.

According to Kahl, the months from March to July are the months with the strongest tick activity on average over many years. With their bite, ticks can transmit bacteria and viruses that trigger diseases such as Lyme disease and meningitis [encephalitis] (TBE) [Tick-Borne Encephalitis].

Those who stay on wide paths do not have to fear tick bites in forests and parks. As soon as one leaves the ways, however, it becomes dangerous. The animals hide in the leaf litter.

United States: Tuberculosis

Washington's tuberculosis (TB) cases are on the rise, putting state and local public health officials on heightened alert. Widespread disruptions in public health and healthcare services and missed TB diagnoses due to similarities in symptoms between COVID-19 and TB are thought to have contributed to TB cases rising both locally and globally.

TB reporting decreased in 2020 during the first year of the pandemic. Though efforts to prevent COVID-19 may also reduce the spread of TB, the decrease could also have been due to delayed or missed TB diagnoses because of strains in the health care system. Some people with TB may also have been misdiagnosed as having COVID-19.

Cases then rose notably beginning in 2021, when 199 cases of TB disease were reported, a 22% increase from 2020. Thus far in 2022, 70 cases have been reported and officials continue to monitor the situation closely. 17 new cases of TB disease all have connections with each other and several Washington state prisons, making it the state's largest outbreak in the last 20 years.

"It's been 20 years since we saw a cluster of TB cases like this," says Tao Sheng Kwan-Gett, MD, MPH, Washington State Chief Science Officer. "The pandemic has likely contributed to the rise in cases and the outbreak in at least one correctional facility," added Kwan-Gett. "Increased access to TB testing and treatment in the community is going to be key to getting TB under control."