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Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases

2017 World News

December 22, 2017

Ireland: Schmallenberg virus

A dairy herd which had milk drop, pyrexia and severely reduced fertility was investigated by Athlone Regional veterinary laboratories.

The milk drop and raised temperatures had been occurring for a number of weeks, a report by the laboratory and seen by FarmIreland details.

It also found that the cows showed depression and there was a drop in their milk yield for 4 or 5 days before returning to normal without any treatment.

Schmallenberg virus infection was suspected and confirmed by positive ELISA assay results in serum taken from affected cows.

The farmer estimated that 25 percent of his cows previously confirmed as pregnant by scan had lost their calves.

USA: Chronic wasting disease

From 1998 to 2016, Montana tested more than 17 000 wild deer, elk and moose for CWD. There were no positive tests until this fall.

A mule deer buck shot by a hunter Nov. 12 north of Chester on the Hi-Line near the Canadian border has tested positive for chronic wasting disease, according to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.

The deer was taken in hunting district 401 in Liberty County, in very remote country fewer than 10 miles from the state's border with Canada, said Bruce Auchly, an FWP spokesman in Great Falls.

The test results mark the fifth incident of CWD discovered in Montana wild deer this fall, but the first in northern Montana. The other four deer came from south of Billings.

"This was not unexpected in that CWD is on three sides of us, Alberta and Saskatchewan, the Dakotas and Wyoming," Auchly said.

Until this year, CWD had not been found in Montana, though the disease exists in wild deer herds in Wyoming, North and South Dakota, Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Uganda: Marburg virus disease

Uganda has contained the recent Marburg viral disease outbreak and declared the country free of the infectious disease. The declaration comes after completion of 42 days of the post-Marburg surveillance countdown period for the contacts of the last confirmed case, as per the World Health Organization requirement for declaring an end to an outbreak of any viral hemorrhagic fever.

"Today [17 Dec 2017], marks 42 days since the death of the last confirmed case which occurred on 26 Oct 2017, indicating that the outbreak which occurred in Kween and Kapchorwa districts has been contained. The Ministry officially declares the country free from Marburg disease," said State Minister of health in charge of General Duties, Sarah Opendi.

The 1st reported case was 35-year-old herdsman from Kween district who had made frequent hunting missions to Kaptum sub-county, where there are caves with large populations of Egyptian fruit bats, and died after exhibiting signs of Marburg virus infection on Sept. 25. Other people developed signs and others that had been in contact with them were isolated at various centers in Eastern Uganda. By Nov. 16 all those under surveillance had completed their 21 days of monitoring to account for the 21-day incubation period of the virus. An additional 21 days of intensive surveillance was carried out in the affected districts to comply with the WHO requirement for management and control of viral hemorrhagic fevers and registered no other confirmed patients.

Nepal: Tick bite fever

On Dec. 13, a 35-year old male resident of Kathmandu, who had returned from Rupandehi district five days previously, presented to the outpatient department of Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH) with a history of tick bite in his right axilla. He removed the tick three days ago. He developed a red spot and severe pain at the site of the tick bite. However, other symptoms such as fever, joint pain, fatigue, rash or eschar were absent during his hospital visit.

On Dec. 18, a 42-year old female visited the hospital having been bitten by a tick on her left thigh during a trip to Mugu district. She found and removed the tick four days after the bite. However, to her surprise, 15 days after the bite, she developed severe pain and itching (at the site of the bite) followed by gradual onset of pain and swelling, which moved toward the left foot. She denied any history of fever, chills or rash.

It seems that tick bite cases (or tick-borne diseases) are being heavily underreported but emerging in Nepal. It is probably due to lack of adequate knowledge among health care providers and laboratory facilities.

China: Anthrax

Two cases of cutaneous anthrax which started on the right forearm and progressed are described in a case report published online Dec.12 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

Hai-Ling Yuan, from Lanzhou General Hospital in China, and colleagues presented two cases of human cutaneous anthrax that began in the right forearm and progressed. The patients were both bitten by mosquitoes -- one while in contact with a sick cow and the other while slaughtering infected cattle.

The authors note that the first patient had a red pustule on his forearm, which swelled and blistered. After admission, he received penicillin G; magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate was added following elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The edema on the patient's hand did not totally regress at the 4th week of therapy and a black eschar remained. The second patient developed a small erythema lesion with itching, which worsened to a wound, causing swelling and multiple bullae. He received cephalosporin antibiotics. Following further testing that revealed elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and AST and ALT, the patient was given penicillin G, levofloxacin, and methylprednisolone; glycyrrhizin was also added. The edema on the patient's arm completely resolved after treatment for four weeks, but there was still edema on the hand.

South Korea: Avian influenza

South Korea's quarantine agency said Dec. 20 that at least two strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza have entered the nation via migratory birds this winter.

The Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency announced the results of DNA analysis into viruses detected at two duck farms in Gochang and Yeongam.

The virus discovered in Gochang was the H5N6 bird flu, which arose from the reassortment between a highly pathogenic H5N8 that spread in Europe in late 2016 and a low-pathogenic N6 virus, the APQA said.

It was identical to the one recently found on the southern island of Jeju.

The strain discovered in Yeongam on Dec. 10 was also H5N6, but its viral sequence had a slightly different pattern from the one in Gochang, it noted.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza is due to a variety of viruses that cause severe disease in birds and result in high death rates, according to the World Health Organization.

Saudi Arabia: Avian influenza

On Dec. 20 Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Environment, Water, and Agriculture announced the detection of Highly Pathogenic H5N8 among birds at a market in Riyadh.

While other Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel, Egypt, etc.) have reported HPAI H5N8 over the past year, this is believed to be the first outbreak in poultry in Saudi Arabia.

Ministry officials indicated that following the receipt of the report on the birds' mortality, the Ministry's veterinary teams visited the site and collected samples from the dead birds which were subsequently tested in the diagnostic veterinary laboratory in Riyadh, where HPAI H5N8 virus strain was identified in chickens and turkeys.

December 15, 2017

Netherlands: Avian influenza

The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality imposed an immediate indoor confinement for Dutch poultry after the detection of avian influenza at a meat ducks farm in Biddinghuizen, province of Flevoland, on Dec. 8.

The bird flu of the H5 type is probably of a highly pathogenic variant. To prevent the virus from spreading, all birds on the affected farm, around 16 000 meat ducks will be killed by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority.

There are four other poultry farms in an area of 1.86 miles surrounding the infected farm in Biddinghuizen. These farms are also examined on the presence of avian influenza.

Minister Carola Schouten of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality ordered an immediate transport ban in a zone of 6.21 miles around the infected farm for poultry, eggs and other products or animals which originates from commercial poultry farms.

The national indoor confinement applies to all commercial farms that keep poultry intended for the production of meat, eggs or other products and also to farms that breed birds to be released into the wild nature. The measures were taken out of precaution to reduce the chance of the virus spreading

Panama: Hantavirus

The Ministry of Health in Los Santos province confirmed a hantavirus death Dec. 7 of a 47-year-old patient from El Sesteadero, Las Tablas.

Carlos Muñoz, Director of Epidemiology in Los Santos, stated that the patient began with symptoms starting on Dec. 1 with fever, headache, dry cough and, finally, respiratory difficulty.

On the night of Dec. 6, she arrived in bad condition in the Joaquín Pablo Franco Hospital in Las Tablas where she was attended but later taken to the Anita Moreno Hospital in La Villa, because there was no ventilator in the hospital in Las Tablas.

Muñoz stated that the evolution was very serious and rapid and she died Dec. 7.

He stated that the test was positive for a hantavirus infection.

She is the first hantavirus death in the last two years.

Cambodia: Avian influenza

The Cambodian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has reported that in early December the bird flu (H5N1 virus) appeared in Kampong Cham province.

After the alert from local authorities, the ministry immediately dispatched experts to inspect the site in Trapaeng Preah, and they took away two dead chickens to be sent to a laboratory in Phnom Penh.

"The tests on Dec. 6 confirmed that those chickens had contracted the avian influenza H5N1," the lab report said.

Agriculture Minister Veng Sakhonn asked the provincial governor and local authorities to strictly prohibit the transport of fowl in any form, living or dead, as poultry or as meat/meat product. This measure should contain the spread of this virus.

The ministry also appealed to the general public that they maintain a high standard of hygiene in their households -- and be extra diligent when dealing with poultry.

Kenya: Anthrax

Four people have been put in an isolation ward at Mt Kenya Hospital Nyeri after being suspected to be infected with anthrax. Nyeri Central sub-county commissioner John Marete said the two brothers and their 2 neighbors from Thunguma village are reported to have eaten uninspected meat in Ruiru, Kiambu County before travelling to Nyeri on Dec. 8.

Mr Marete confirmed that the patients presented themselves at Nyeri Referral Hospital on Dec. 9 and were immediately transferred to the health facility after screening. "They are receiving treatment at an isolation room since Anthrax is a contagious disease," said Mr Marete.

He added that public health officers have been mobilized and dispatched to the village to assess the situation and investigate if there could be other possible cases. "We want to find out how they contaminated the disease and if there could be other possible victims who are yet to present themselves in hospital. The medics are controlling the homestead," he noted.

USA: Strangles

The number of cases of the bacterial equine infection, strangles, has reached 40 to date in 2017, according to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, with 5 recent cases reported.

As reported by the Equine Disease Communication Center, the latest cases were reported from Manatee, Volusia, and Indian River counties. Here are the details:

On Dec. 4 the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services confirmed 3 premises in Manatee County, Florida, were placed under quarantine for clinical signs of strangles. All four horses began showing clinical signs after a trail ride event on Nov. 18 in Citrus County. These are the first 3 cases of strangles in Manatee County and the 36-38th cases for the state of Florida.

On Dec. 5 the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services confirmed one premise in Volusia County, Florida, was placed under quarantine for clinical signs and positive PCR confirmation of Strangles. The index case became clinical on Dec. 2. All other horses on the premise are free of clinical signs at this time. This is the first case of reported strangles in Volusia County and the 39th for the state of Florida.

On Dec. 6 the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services confirmed one premise in Indian River County, Florida, was placed under quarantine for clinical signs and positive PCR confirmation of strangles. The index case became clinical on Nov. 20 after residing at a training facility in Lee County. All other horses at both locations are free of clinical signs. This is the first case of reported strangles in Indian River County and the 40th for the state of Florida.

Canada: E. coli

The Public Health Agency of Canada is collaborating with provincial public health partners, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada to investigate an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157, commonly called E. coli. The outbreak involves three provinces and is linked to romaine lettuce. At this time, there are no product recalls associated with this outbreak. The outbreak investigation is ongoing, and this public health notice will be updated on a regular basis as the investigation evolves.

The risk to Canadians is low. However, Canadians are reminded to follow safe food handling practices for lettuce to avoid becoming ill. Most people with an E. coli infection will become ill for a few days and then recover fully. Some E. coli infections can be life threatening, though this is rare.

E. coli are bacteria that live naturally in the intestines of cattle, poultry, and other animals. A common source of E. coli illness is raw fruits and vegetables that have come in contact with feces from infected animals

Currently, there are 21 cases of E. coli O157 illness under investigation in 3 provinces: Quebec (3), New Brunswick (5), and Newfoundland and Labrador (13). Individuals became sick in November 2017. Ten individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between the ages of 5 and 72 years of age. The majority of cases (71 percent) are female.

USA: Plague

Two black bears exposed to the plague were found in Paradise, according to the California Department of Public Health. The department collected blood in September from two bears killed under depredation permits, and the samples tested positive for antibodies to Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague.

The California Department of Fish and Wildlife issued the depredation permits. Tanya Espinosa, spokesperson for U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, said she could not reveal the location the bears were found because they were not on public lands.

They were removed by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services because they were damaging private lands and an agricultural resource, Espinosa said.

Plague is a flea-borne disease spread through contact with infected animals, dead or alive, and flea bites. Predators like bears often prey on rodents, which are the primary carriers of plague, according to the state Public Health Department. When bears scavenge a plague-infected rodent, they are exposed to plague bacteria and develop antibodies. These bears were infected with the bacterium that causes plague, but unlike humans, bears do not become ill from plague infection, according to the state.

A second incidence of plague involved a dog that was being treated at Colorado State University. The dog was euthanized on Dec. 8. The CSU Veterinary Teaching Hospital notified faculty, staff, and students Dec. 11.

Local media reports that this was the 7th case of plague in a domestic animal in Colorado this year.

Officials say they have taken all of the steps to directly notify anyone who may have been exposed to the bacteria, either directly at the hospital or who had animals that were also patients at the time the infected dog was hospitalized.

December 8, 2017

Israel: Rabies

Another two cases of rabies-infected jackals have been discovered in the northern region in recent days. On Nov. 30, a jackal attacked cars traveling in rural Israel. The jackal was shot and sent for testing. The jackal's behavior, attacking vehicles, was highly suspicious of the disease; jackals routinely avoid people. This case, reportedly, tested rabies-positive on Dec. 1 at Israel's national rabies center.

Two days earlier, another case was discovered, where a woman was bitten by a jackal; she quickly arrived at a nearby medical center to check for infection. The lab indicated that the jackal was indeed rabies-infected. An inspector of the Megiddo Regional Council, Commissioner Yuval Azulai, who was summoned to the scene, said that the jackal tried to attack him and that he was forced to shoot it.

More than two months after the start of the abrupt rise in rabies outbreaks in the northern valleys region, it has become known that the dispersion of oral vaccine baits, an activity applied annually on both sides of the Jordan River for the immunization of wild animals, has not started yet within the territory of the Kingdom of Jordan, on the eastern side of the Jordan River.

USA: Salmonella

A total of two Burger King restaurants in Bemidji, MN, temporarily closed Nov. 30 after more than two dozen people contracted salmonellosis after eating there. Doug Schultz, a spokesperson with the Minnesota Department of Health, said the department has confirmed 27 cases, and received reports of four more probable cases.

Most cases were identified in September, he said, but the victims may have been exposed before then. Two additional cases came to light this week, prompting the closures. "They may have been sick a couple weeks or so before then," Schultz said. "It takes a while before people get symptoms, and then they're sick enough to go to the doctor, and then we identify."

Symptoms of salmonellosis, a bacterial disease that infects the intestinal tract, can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache and blood in the stool, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Once the Department of Health identified the outbreak in September 2017, they put "stringent" interventions in place, Schultz said. The Burger Kings were both cleaned and any employees with symptoms were kept from working until they were symptom-free for 72 hours, but the precautions did not stop the outbreak. "Most of the time that does the trick, 98 percent of the time we don't see further transmission," Schultz said. "In this case we had two additional illnesses pop up this week."

USA: Salmonella

Oregon health officials said Dec. 1 they are investigating two cases of salmonellosis linked to a regional outbreak of the disease involving pre-cut melon sold at Oregon and Washington grocery stores. The Oregon cases, one each in Multnomah and Wasco counties, appear to be connected to an outbreak of infections of the Newport strain of Salmonella infections that also involves 16 ill people in Washington. None of the Oregon cases were hospitalized.

Individuals who fell ill reported eating pre-cut cantaloupe or watermelon purchased at Kroger stores, including Fred Meyer and QFC, as well as Rosauers and Central Market stores in Washington and Oregon. Their symptoms occurred between late October and mid-November.

The two Oregon cases reported purchasing products from Fred Meyer stores in Oregon. Federal regulatory officials are investigating to determine the origin of the contamination. Meanwhile, public health officials in Oregon and Washington are advising people who purchased the products between late October and early December to immediately throw them away. Persons who ate the melon do not need to seek medical attention unless they become ill.

Tahiti: Salmonella

Three cases of salmonellosis have been officially confirmed in Taravao in addition to the suspected case of a fourth person who died after having shown the symptoms of salmonella infection.

In a statement, released Nov. 30, the Ministry of Health said: "three cases of salmonellosis confirmed and a suspected case, occurred in Taravao." These infections were reported to the Bureau de Veille Sanitaire between Nov. 20-28. Above all, "one person has died," says this information, while indicating that "the main cause of death remains uncertain."

"We were not able to take samples from the deceased person," says Dr. Marine Giard. "It is thought that this person also had salmonellosis, but the doctor who observed the death did not remember that the person's episode of gastroenteritis was the direct cause of death. [He] died at home and did not call a doctor during the episode of illness. (...) He had the same symptoms as his wife, who was confirmed with salmonellosis," said the head of the Bureau de Veille Sanitaire, noting that "it is unusual for a healthy person, as it seemed to be his case, to die of salmonellosis, which is why this case is still very surprising. There was no autopsy."

Peru: Plague

Officials in La Libertad, Peru are carrying out a fumigation campaign in the District Municipality of Chocope, Ascope province, after the presence of the agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, was confirmed in fleas found on sewer rodents. In addition, the National Institute of Health (INS) issued a report stating that in a sample extracted in the sector known as Panamericana Norte, in Chocope, "18 percent of fleas in sewer rodents are infected with the bacterium."

Given this situation, the district mayor, Rolando Luján, met with the head of the local health center and other competent authorities to take measures to prevent the epidemic outbreak of bubonic plague in Chocope, a district considered endemic area for plague. The authorities decided to develop a fumigation campaign in 160 homes located in the Panamericana Norte sector. The fumigation will be in charge of qualified personnel of the Ministry of Health (Minsa).

"We ask for the cooperation of the families and owners so that they allow the fumigators to enter their buildings and we can avoid the resurgence of the disease, whose last case was presented some two years ago, "said the mayor. Luján also explained why killing the rats was not the answer-"What is infected is the flea, not the rodent. If we kill the rodent the flea will jump and possibly infect other animals

China: Avian influenza

The Center for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is monitoring a notification from the National Health and Family Planning Commission that an additional human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) was recorded in Yunnan, and strongly urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel. The 64-year-old male patient in Kunming, known to have contact with dead poultry, was in a serious condition.

"This is the first human case reported in the mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the mainland is expected to increase," a spokesman for the CHP said.

Travelers to the mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets, or farms. They should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry, and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry.

Travelers returning from affected areas should consult a doctor promptly if symptoms develop, and inform the doctor of their travel history for prompt diagnosis and treatment of potential diseases. It is essential to tell the doctor if they have seen any live poultry during travel, which may imply possible exposure to contaminated environments. This will enable the doctor to assess the possibility of avian influenza and arrange necessary investigations and appropriate treatment in a timely manner.

While local surveillance, prevention and control measures are in place, the CHP will remain vigilant and work closely with the World Health Organization and relevant health authorities to monitor the latest developments.

Madagascar: Plague

Due to concerted national and international response the current and unprecedented outbreak of plague in Madagascar, which started on Aug 1, has been contained. 

On Nov. 27, the Ministry of Health of Madagascar officially announced the containment of the acute urban pneumonic plague outbreak. However, because plague is endemic in Madagascar and the plague season lasts from September to April, more cases of bubonic and sporadic pneumonic plague are expected to be reported until April 2018. WHO and other stakeholders will continue to support the Ministry of Health of Madagascar to maintain vigilance and to sustain a strong alert and response system to rapidly detect and respond to new plague cases as they emerge.

In the last week of November, 72 cases of plague (one confirmed, 6 probable and 65 suspect) were reported to WHO. The date of onset of the last confirmed bubonic case was Nov. 18 and the date of onset of the last case of secondary pneumonic plague (primary bubonic form) was Nov. 19.

From Aug. 1 to Nov. 26, 2,417 confirmed, probable and suspected cases of plague, including 209 deaths (case fatality rate 9 percent), have been reported from 57 of 114 districts in Madagascar. Analamanga Region in central Madagascar has been the most affected, with 68 percent of all recorded cases. Since the beginning of this outbreak, the vast majority of cases have been treated and have recovered. As of Nov. 26, only 13 people were hospitalized for plague. There has been no international spread outside the country.

The majority of the reported cases have been clinically classified as pneumonic plague, 355 have been classified as bubonic plague (15 percent), one was septicemic, and 207 have not yet been classified (further classification of cases is in process). Up to 81 healthcare workers have had illness compatible with plague, none of whom have died.

December 1, 2017

Brazil: Yellow fever

Between July and mid-October 2017, a total of 71 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Of these, 2 were confirmed, 6 are under investigation, and 63 were ruled out. The 2 confirmed cases (one of which was fatal) were reported from Itatiba from Sept. 17 to Oct. 7.

From July to early November, 580 epizootics in non-human primates were reported in Sao Paulo State, with an increase in the number of cases reported from Sept. 10. Of these, 120 were confirmed for yellow fever, 233 are under investigation, 74 were classified as undetermined, and 153 were ruled out. The highest number of epizootics was registered in the health surveillance area of Campinas, where epizootic episodes were reported for the first time in the municipalities of Campo Limpo Paulista, Atibaia, and Jarinu. Epizootics in NHPs were also recently reported in large parks located within the urban area of Sao Paulo City.

Venezuela: Malaria

On a recent morning in Venezuela's southern jungle state of Bolivar, a woman, her two sons, one daughter-in-law, and a granddaughter lined up in front of a shabby community health center in the hope of receiving treatment for malaria. All five of them are afflicted by the mosquito-borne disease, which is rapidly spreading through Venezuela as an economic meltdown strips the country of medicine and doctors.

"We don't know if this is a curse, but the entire area is awash in malaria," said the woman, who is suffering her second bout of the illness in the last three months and relying on palliative herbal teas because she has not found regular drugs. The family was waiting with some 500 others under the scorching sun in the hope of receiving treatment.

Unsanitary conditions in Bolivar are thought to have led to a recent flare-up in malaria, a life-threatening disease that had been largely brought under control in Venezuela in the 1990s. The outbreak was likely initially caused by illegal mining. The miners cut down rainforests and often work in pools of stagnant water, which favors the spread of mosquitoes and malaria.

In data released earlier this year, government statistics showed there were 240 613 cases of malaria last year, up 76 per cent compared with 2015, with most in Bolivar. The government did not respond to a request for comment on the malaria outbreak.

On a visit to Bolivar in early November, the vice minister for health, Moira Tovar, said the outbreak in the state would be controlled within 3 months. She said that 32 people had died during just one week in late October. "What are (these deaths) due to? They're due to people who are infected and who know about the illness but don't visit health centers on time. Instead they wait for the condition to worsen before seeking attention," she said.

Portugal: E. coli

A 7 year old girl from Maia, northern Portugal, has died days after falling ill due to a food-related Escherichia coli infection. Her death was initially linked to her pet hamster but authorities have since confirmed the illness is infectious. The young schoolgirl is believed to have caught the dangerous bacterium from something she ate, which caused vomiting and diarrhea and subsequent kidney failure.

The girl, a pupil at the Gandra School Group in Maia, suffered from vomiting and diarrhea for a few days before being urgently rushed to the Sao Joao Hospital in Porto after her kidneys started to fail. She died Nov. 20 due to kidney failure, two days after being admitted to the unit.

Worried parents at the school were quick to seek reassurances from the local education board, the council and health authorities with regards to their own children's health and safety, along with answers as to whether the illness could be contagious, given that the young girl had fraternized with colleagues. According to reports, at least one other child at the school has shown the same symptoms.

Uganda: Rift Valley fever

The Ugandan government said on Nov. 24 that an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in the central districts of Mityana and Kiboga has killed two people. Charles Olaro, acting director general of health services at the ministry of health, said in a statement that blood samples taken from dead patients in Mityana and Kiboga tested positive for RVF.

The two were a 26 year old male forest ranger, who died on Nov. 16 and a 69 year old male farmer and fisherman, who died on Nov. 21. Olaro said the National Rapid Response Team has been sent to support the district response structures to contain the outbreak.

RVF is a viral zoonosis that can also infect humans. Most human infections result from contact with the blood or organs of infected animals. The disease can result in significant economic losses due to death and abortion among RVF-infected livestock.

Thailand: Anthrax

A team has been dispatched from Mae Sot Hospital in Tak to investigate a suspected anthrax infection after three villagers in Tambon Mahawan developed suspicious symptoms after eating goat meat reportedly brought in from a neighboring country.

Hospital director Dr Thawatchai Setthasupana said the team was sent to Ban Mae Kone Kane following news that people had anthrax-like small blisters or bumps on their hands and arms after eating the meat. Tests on the hospitalized patients initially yielded a negative result for anthrax, but this might be because they had received medication at a Tambon-level hospital, he said. It was reported that 30 villagers had consumed the meat in question, but most of them had already taken medication and they could not be successfully tested for anthrax. Instead, the hospital team collected samples from animal carcasses for lab tests with the results expected soon.

Korea: Avian influenza

A highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza - H5N6 - has been confirmed in Korea's southern Jeju island. It's the third such confirmation since the turn of winter. 

The environment ministry says the virus, discovered in wild bird droppings last week, is highly-contagious. 

And in another development, there are signs of a new strain of avian influenza; as the bird flu virus detected at a poultry farm in Gochang, Jeollabuk-do Province earlier this month, seems to be a combination of highly pathogenic strains spotted in Europe last year. The Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency says the virus may have been carried by birds flying in from Europe.

Analysis shows it's different from the virus detected in last year's outbreak in Korea.

Canada: Equine infectious anemia

The Equine Disease Communication Center reported Nov. 24 that the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's national reference laboratory has confirmed a case of equine infectious anemia in a horse in Havelock, Quebec.

"This animal had been sampled by an accredited veterinarian prior to it being moved to a new premises; clinical signs of the disease were not reported," the EDCC stated. "A CFIA investigation is underway and, as per program policy, a quarantine has been placed on the infected animal and its on-premise contacts. The quarantine will remain until all disease response activities have been completed on the premises, including follow-up testing and ordering the destruction of positive cases."

In January, animal health officials confirmed another EIA case in a horse in Quebec's Lanaudière region. It was the province's first confirmed EIA case since 2011.

USA: Equine herpesvirus

A farm in Western Pennsylvania has been quarantined after a horse residing there tested positive for equine herpesvirus-1, the Equine Disease Communication Center reported Nov. 27.

"The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture posted a quarantine at a Butler County dressage barn after a horse with signs of neurological impairment tested positive for EHV-1 (wild-type) by RRT-PCR testing of nasal swab and whole blood samples," the EDCC said in a post on its website. "All equine animals on that property are under quarantine and are being monitored closely for signs of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy.

"One other small private home barn is also under quarantine as it recently received a horse from the affected barn. An epidemiological investigation of equine movements is underway."

Herpesvirus is highly contagious among horses and can cause a variety of ailments in equids, including rhinopneumonitis (a respiratory disease usually found in young horses), abortion in broodmares, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, the neurologic form of the virus. In many horses, fever is the only sign of EHV-1 infection, which can go undetected.

Mauritania: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

Following cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever reported this spring and summer, the Mauritania Ministry of Health has reported an addition CCHF case last week in a 48-year-old male farmer from Haye Sakin community in Dar Nairn, at the outskirt of the capital city, Nouakchott. He was later treated and discharged last week.

The frequency of these events affirms the relative prevalence of the pathogen and the reservoir and vector for CCHF virus (Hyalomma ticks) in the country.

According to the WHO, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.

Kenya: Anthrax

A total of 7 people have been admitted to Longisa County Referral Hospital in Bomet in serious condition after feasting on meat from a cow suspected to have been infected with anthrax. At least 100 others have been treated and discharged in the incident which occurred in Chepalungu Constituency. However, the county chief officer in charge of medical services, Dr Bernard Sowek, said the 7 victims still in hospital were in stable condition and were out of danger.

Dr Sowek said the patients were taken to Chebunyo Dispensary on Nov. 29 but after diagnosis, it was discovered that they needed specialized treatment and were referred to Longisa Hospital in Bomet East Constituency. "The patients are in stable condition since they were rushed to hospital early enough for treatment," Dr Sowek said.

All the patients are said to have fallen ill after their neighbor butchered a cow that had suddenly died, and invited them for a feast. "The report we have is that a neighbor had called for a feast after their cow died without any symptoms of illness and...some of those who ate developed abdominal pains," Dr Sowek stated.

November 24, 2017

USA: Hepatitis A

A hepatitis A outbreak that has gripped southeast Michigan has now reached western Michigan. The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services says 3 cases of hepatitis A that were reported in Calhoun County are linked to the strain in southeast Michigan. Health officials say 2 of those cases were in people who live in southeast Michigan but were diagnosed in Calhoun County; one of the people is a Calhoun County resident. Since August 2016, health officials have received reports of 486 confirmed cases of hepatitis A. A total of 18 people have died.

"The difference with this strain, and we're not really sure exactly why, but we're seeing a lot more hospitalization and we're actually seeing quite a few deaths," said Michelle Thorne of the Calhoun County Health Department. "Out of 486 confirmed cases, there has been about an 84 percent hospitalization rate and there have been about 19 deaths that have occurred between August and November [2017]. So that's quite unusual for us to see with hepatitis A."

Michigan activated the State Emergency Operations Center about 2 weeks ago to respond to the outbreak. The virus appears to be spreading from person to person through illicit drug use, but can also be contracted by close contact with someone with hepatitis A.

Madagascar: Plague

Although plague is endemic in Madagascar, this season has been uncharacteristic: it started a month early, has been predominately of the pneumonic form, and has most affected the largest urban centers of Madagascar (Antananarivo, Toamasina, Fianarantsoa and Antsirabe). Many of the district's current affected have no experience of the disease, which represents another challenge in addition to the difficulties in controlling the epidemic in urban areas.

The total number of cases (2,158) is already 5 times higher than the average annual total of 400 (September to April).

The spread of pneumonic plague in high-density urban areas is faster, with a risk of large-scale epidemics, while the implementation of health and non-health responses is confronted with access problems (difficulty in tracing contacts, especially in slums) and the frequent moving of people. The capital city of Antananarivo, the country's trade and transport hub, is most affected by this epidemic.

USA: Hantavirus

Coconino County Health officials are confirming a case of Hantavirus in northern Arizona. Officials say the case involves someone who traveled to Coconino County from outside Arizona. The person went to many places in the area and it is unknown where the person contracted the virus.

The Hantaviruses are transmitted to people who come in contact, or breathe infected urine, droppings or saliva from wild mice. This is the 1st confirmed case of the infection in Coconino County this year and the 6th case in the county since 2007. Symptoms of the virus could include fever, headache and muscle aches. Those symptoms progress to severe difficulty in breathing. If anyone has those symptoms, contact their doctor immediately.

Pakistan: Chikungunya

Up to 9 more chikungunya suspected cases have been detected from Karachi, taking the number of reported cases to 3,994 in the city in 2017. 

According to the report issued by Sindh Health Department, a total 4,724 chikungunya suspected cases had been reported throughout the province, including 3994 from Karachi and 730 from other districts of the province. A total of 86 chikungunya suspected cases have been surfaced in the city this month so far.

Chikungunya is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes and the major symptoms include high fever, joint pain, joint swelling, rash, headache, muscle pain, nausea, and fatigue. Chikungunya is rarely fatal, while the death rate of the disease-affected people is less than one percent.

Uganda: Marburg virus

Moroto district is under health surveillance following the mysterious death of a 16-year-old pupil from Lia primary school.

The primary-6 pupil was rushed to Moroto Army Barracks HC1V on Nov. 14 with signs akin to the Marburg virus, a highly virulent epidemic-prone disease associated with high case fatality rates. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected persons or animals.

Medical personnel say that the patient was bleeding and vomiting blood. She died Nov. 15. Moroto District Health Officer Andrew Rews Ilukol says that blood samples have been taken for testing at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe to establish the cause of bleeding and death of the minor.

Puerto Rico, USA: Leptospirosis

Puppies from Puerto Rico tested positive for leptospirosis after they got sick. Leptospirosis is caused by the Leptospira genus of bacteria and can infect humans and different kinds of animals.

Several puppies brought to New Hampshire and Vermont from Puerto Rico tested positive for leptospirosis after getting sick. Individuals who interacted with the infected puppies are advised by authorities to consult their healthcare providers.

On Nov. 9, a Vermont dog rescue non-profit brought 10 puppies to Vermont and New Hampshire from hurricane devastated Puerto Rico in hopes of finding a good home for them. A couple of days later, the puppies were taken to the outdoor patio at Ramunto's Brick and Brew Pizzeria so that the patrons and customers could interact with them.

Soon after, 5 of the 10 puppies had fallen ill, with one of them testing positive for leptospirosis. That said, the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) states the puppy testing positive for leptospirosis was not at the restaurant, and as they were merely stationed at a designated area outside the facility, the restaurant is deemed as safe. Out of the 5 puppies that got sick, 2 have been euthanized.

France: Bluetongue

On Nov. 6, France reported a single case of BTV-4 in a bovine in Haute Savoie region. The animal in question tested positive for virus under the framework of pre-movement testing and has been humanely destroyed. Disease control measures are in place around the holding of origin, including surveillance and mandatory vaccination in the surrounding 20-km control and 100-km prevention zones and surveillance in the additional 50-km surveillance zone. The location of the holding of origin is close to the Italian and Swiss borders, and the respective authorities in each country have been notified, as the zones also cover part of their territory.

According to the French authorities, the animal in question was a 15-day old veal calf which had been born in the Haute Savoie and then moved to a fattening farm in Allier region (via an assembly centre in the Loire region), where testing was carried out, prior to being moved to Spain. The animals at the fattening farm are also being tested.

USA: West Nile virus

More people were infected and died of West Nile virus across California this year than last year, especially in Los Angeles County.

That's where the number of infections peaked in September. Statewide, there have been 25 deaths so far this year, 6 more than all of last year. In addition, 454 people from across the state were infected this year, a 17 per cent increase from 2016.

Though the end of the season is approaching, more reports of infections and deaths are likely, public health officials said.

Switzerland: Tickborne encephalitis

Since the beginning of the year, Switzerland has recorded 257 cases of meningitis due to tick bites, according to figures from the federal office of public health.

Ticks are particularly active during the period from March to November. This year in Switzerland, the authorities estimate that there have been 23,000 consultations for tick bites.

On the other hand, the number of annual cases of tickborne encephalitis transmitted by ticks has ranged between 52 in 2002 and 257 in 2017, with a record of 36 cases in the month of October.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

No less than 38 cases of monkeypox have been laboratory confirmed in 8 states of the federation. The affected states are Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Lagos, Rivers, and the Federal Capital Territory.

A total of 116 suspected cases were recorded from 20 states and the FCT; since the onset of the outbreak, even as no death attributable to monkeypox has been recorded so far.

Announcing the development, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control said a total of 103 samples have been collected and sent to National Reference Laboratory, Lagos for testing. 

South Korea: Avian influenza

The South Korean government said Nov. 19 that a suspected bird flu case was confirmed to be highly pathogenic and imposed a travel ban to prevent further spread of the animal virus.

The avian influenza, discovered on a poultry farm with 12 000 ducks in Gochang, some 300 kilometers southwest of Seoul, tested positive as a highly pathogenic strain of H5N6, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

The ministry said it imposed a nationwide movement ban on poultry, vehicles, and farm workers starting Nov. 20 to contain further outbreaks.

China: Avian influenza

The Center for Health Protection of the Department of Health received notification Nov. 20 of an additional human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in Guangxi from the National Health and Family Planning Commission, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The case was a 33 year old man from Guiyang. He developed symptoms on Nov. 7 and was hospitalized. He is now in a critical condition. The patient had contact with live poultry and exposure to live poultry markets before the onset of symptoms.

"Based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza viruses, their activity in the mainland is expected to increase in winter. The public should avoid contact with poultry, birds and their droppings and should not visit live poultry markets and farms to prevent avian influenza," a spokesman said.

From 2014 to date, 17 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported by the mainland health authorities.

Russia: Avian influenza

The press service of the regional Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance says that an outbreak of avian influenza has been detected in the Remontnensky district of Rostovskaya oblast.

"The genome of the influenza A virus of the H5 subtype has been identified in samples collected on Nov. 17 from carcasses of chickens found in an unauthorized landfill, located 1 mile north east of the village of Remontnoye," the agency explains. "Currently, export of poultry from the affected region has been banned. Road blocks and two veterinary and police posts have been placed at the exits from the village," the press service of the Veterinary Department of the region adds.

November 17, 2017

Oman: MERS

On Nov. 1, the International Health Regulations national focal point of Oman reported one case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.

The patient, a 27-year-old male living in Sharqiyah Region, reported contact with dromedaries prior to symptom onset.

Globally, there have been 2,103 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 733 related deaths reported to the World Health Organization.

Investigations are ongoing into the source of infection and exposure to other known risk factors in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms.

Argentina: Hantavirus

There is confirmation of two cases of a hantavirus infection in students in the Hugo Luna School in Oran, Salta province.

The two victims were hospitalized with symptoms of the virus infection and the school was closed for a cleanup and classes were suspended.

Monica Carabajal, the principal of the primary school, confirmed that, "This past Friday a 3rd grade girl was admitted [to a hospital]. I directed that there was a fumigation and cleanup. Later, another girl from the same grade was admitted [to hospital] with the same symptoms."

The cases of the girls from the same grade are the only confirmed ones but there are another three people (two students and a teacher) with symptoms who are being studied in order to be confirmed.

The school, according to statements of the Principal, has been in "bad condition". The parents, in fact, complained about the lack of cleanliness of the school and the presence of rodents.

USA: E. coli

No source has been determined in the E. coli outbreak that has sickened dozens of U.S. Marine recruits in San Diego. Ten new cases have been reported, according to officials at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. The base, located near San Diego International Airport, is the 1st stop for recruits as they begin basic training to join the U.S. Marine Corps. Approximately 79 Marine recruits were still undergoing treatment among more than 5000 recruits in training.

Up to 9 out of 17 recruits treated at off-base medical facilities developed a complication known as hemolytic uremic syndrome due to the outbreak, MCRD officials said.

Officials called it a very serious concern. The E. coli outbreak has affected both MCRD San Diego and the command field's training facilities at Edson Range on Camp Pendleton. The outbreak was first announced Nov. 6 when diarrheal illness sickened more than 300 Marine recruits.

USA: Lyme Disease

The Ohio Department of Health is reporting Lyme disease cases in the state this year are up 33 percent from 2016. The department says 241 cases of Lyme disease have been reported in 60 Ohio counties so far in 2017. There were only 160 cases in 2016.

The increase in cases coincides with the increase of the blacklegged tick in Ohio.

Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected deer tick. Symptoms can include a flu-like illness, muscle pain, and headache; a bull's-eye shaped rash is often also seen at the site of the bite as well.

Ohio Department of Health Medical Director Dr. Clint Koenig says: "Lyme disease is still very important to think about, even in cold weather. You still need to take precautions, like wearing bug repellent, to make sure you are protected while outside enjoying the fall season."

Nigeria: Monkeypox

The dreaded monkey pox virus has continued to spread in Delta state, with the state government on Nov. 8 confirming one case of the virus among the five suspected cases that were earlier reported.

Results from the other samples sent to the laboratory in Dakar, Senegal are expected, according to the Commissioner for Health, Dr. Nicholas Azinge, who made this known during the debriefing session of officials of the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC).

NCDC officials have been in the state since Oct. 27 to get first-hand information from communities where there are suspected monkeypox cases in a bid to provide technical assistance on the disease.

Dr. Azinge listed Aniocha South, Ethiope East, Ika North East, Ndokwa East and Sapele local government areas as the localities where the five suspected cases were initially detected, adding that the cases are being handled by experts.

He disclosed that a total of 45 contact persons are under follow up by relevant authorities, of which 16 have been completed.

India: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

A 39-year-old resident of Khedbrahma taluka in Sabarkantha district, was tested positive for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The patient is currently taking treatment at a hospital and was likely to be discharged on Nov. 11. 

The patient had been showing symptoms such as fever with shivering, vomiting, headache and the presence of red blood cells in urine.

Pakistan: Anthrax

A mysterious disease, declared by livestock officials as anthrax, has reportedly killed a number of animals in Bajaur Agency over the last few days.

They said several cattle had died of the disease during the past two weeks in various localities of Mamond and Khar tehsils. According to them, a number of cattle had also been infected with the disease.

The locals said the disease had panicked them, as they could not afford the loss of their animals.

The people said that following the deaths of the animals, officials of the local livestock department had visited the affected areas and obtained information about the disease. According to them, livestock officials examined the infected cattle and vaccinated a number of animals in the localities.

Bulgaria: Newcastle Disease

An outbreak of Newcastle disease was found in hens on a farm in the village of Sinitevo in the region of Pazardzhik, Director of the Regional Food Safety Directorate Dr. Petko Mitev told Focus Radio - Pazardzhik. The outbreak is localized; all birds in the 3 km protection zone are vaccinated.

No other outbreaks of Newcastle disease or avian influenza have been reported in the area so far.

Newcastle disease is caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 of the genus Avulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. There are ten serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses designated APMV-I to APMV-10.

Madagascar: Plague

Since Aug. 1, Madagascar has been experiencing a large outbreak of plague. As of Nov. 10,  2,119 confirmed, probable and suspected cases of plague, including 171 deaths have been reported by the Ministry of Health of Madagascar to the World Health Organization.

Of those, 1,618 (76 percent) of cases and 72 deaths have been clinically classified as pneumonic plague, including 365 (23 percent) confirmed, 573 (35 percent) probable and 680 (42 percent) suspected cases. In addition to the pneumonic cases, 324 (15 percent) cases of bubonic plague, one case of septicemic plague, and 176 unspecified cases (8 percent), have been reported to WHO. Up to 82 health care workers have had illness compatible with plague, none of whom have died.

As of Nov. 10, 218 out of 243 (90 percent) of contacts under follow-up were reached and provided with prophylactic antimicrobials. Since the beginning of the outbreak, a total of 7,122 contacts were identified, 6,729 (95 percent) of whom have completed their 7-day follow up and a course of prophylactic antimicrobials. Only 9 contacts developed symptoms and became suspected cases.

Turkey: Anthrax

A total of four neighborhoods in the Aegean province of Denizli were quarantined against the risk of anthrax Nov. 16. 

Denizli's local head of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Ahmet Kocakaplan said livestock sales in the Emirhisar, Haydan, Omerli and Incecoy neighborhoods in Denizli's Civril district are banned for 21 days.

The anthrax concern was raised after the death of two cattle in the Emirhisar neighborhood. Teams arrived at the scene to take samples from dead cattle for laboratory examination. The examination showed the animals had been killed from anthrax and the four neighborhoods in Civril were put under quarantine.

Kocakaplan also said they would start the vaccination process against anthrax as soon as possible.

"Up to two bovine animals have died in the Emircik neighborhood. We suspected it had been due to anthrax. We sent the samples to the lab and the results determined it to be anthrax. The Emirhisar, Haydan, Omerli and Incecoy neighborhoods are under quarantine. Livestock sales are banned for at least 21 days," he said. Animal products had also been destroyed, stated Kocakaplan.

November 10, 2017

Madagascar: Plague

The spread of a plague outbreak in Madagascar may finally be slowing down.
The epidemic, which began in August 2017, has taken the lives of 133 people and resulted in 1,836 suspected or confirmed cases. However, the occurrence of new cases is finally decreasing, according to a report released Nov. 1 by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

The week of Oct. 9 there were 477 new cases, compared with 161 during the week of Oct. 23. The report says 1,044 patients have been cured, and 83 others are receiving treatment. The number of hospitalizations because of the plague has also decreased, according to the WHO. Although the number of total cases has continued to increase, this is because of "enhanced surveillance and ongoing investigations," the WHO said; some of the cases were not actually infected, upon inspection.

The epidemic remains active in 12 districts, and among the total cases reported, 61 percent are said to be the pneumonic plague, according to the UN office. This is faster-spreading and more transmittable than bubonic plague, noted Tarik Jasarevic, a spokesman for the WHO; "compared with past outbreaks, this year there is a higher portion of pneumonic plague cases."

USA: E. coli

Approximately 69 Marine recruits remain sickened in an E. coli outbreak at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, according to a Nov. 3 update. The recruits currently undergoing treatment also included 14 new cases among more than 5,000 recruits in training. Up to 9 out of 17 recruits getting treatment at off-base medical facilities have developed a complication known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) due to the outbreak, according to officials. Officials called it a very serious concern.

The E. coli exposure affects both MCRD San Diego and the command field's training facilities at Edson Range on Camp Pendleton.

The outbreak was first announced Oct. 30 when diarrheal illness sickened more than 300 Marine recruits, an MCRD spokesperson said. Since then, dozens of recruits have recovered. On Nov. 2, officials confirmed 86 recruits remained sick due to the outbreak but the number decreased to 69 Nov. 3.

Oman: MERS

The Ministry of Health has confirmed the diagnosis of a new case with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

The patient is in his 20s and currently in a stable condition at one of the referral hospitals.

In a statement, the ministry has stressed the readiness of all referral hospitals to deal with such cases through the effective applicable epidemiological surveillance system.

Bulgaria: Avian influenza

A total of four bird flu outbreaks have been registered so far across Bulgaria. They are in the northeastern region of Dobrich and the southeastern regions of Haskovo, Sliven and Yambol, the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency said in a press release Nov. 5.

A total of two sources of bird flu have been registered in two villages in Straldzha Municipality, Yambol Region, Regional Governor Dimiter Ivanov said Nov. 3. Birds tested positive for bird flu at a poultry farm in Zimnitsa, where some 8,000 birds have been culled, as well as at a goose farm in Charda. Ivanov said that there is no risk for private farms. All birds in the 2 km perimeter around the sources of the disease will be examined.

Bird flu was also registered in the villages of Gloushnik (Sliven region) and Ouzundzhovo (Haskovo region). These birds were privately owned by local residents and raised in their back yards.

USA: Hepatitis A

On Sept. 1, the San Diego County public health officer declared a local public health emergency due to the ongoing hepatitis A outbreak in the county. The outbreak is being spread person-to-person and through contact with fecally contaminated environments. The majority of people who have contracted hepatitis A during this outbreak have been homeless and/or illicit drug users. Efforts of the County and its community partners to halt the hepatitis A outbreak focus on three key areas: vaccination, sanitation and education.

Uganda: Marburg

On Oct. 17, the Ugandan Ministry of Health notified WHO of a confirmed outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Kween district, Eastern Uganda. The Ministry for Health officially declared the outbreak on 19 Oct 2017.

As of Nov. 3, the 3 cases that have been previously reported have died, resulting in an overall case-fatality rate of 100 percent. The cases were epidemiologically linked and come from one family.

The second confirmed case travelled to Kenya, prior to his death. Contact tracing and active case search is ongoing in Kween in Kapchorwa district in Uganda, as well as in Kitale district and West Pokot in Kenya. On Nov. 4 a high risk contact of the second confirmed case, a health care worker developed symptoms and was admitted to the treatment facility in Kween. Additionally, one close contact of the second confirmed case has been reported to have travelled to Kampala, Uganda. The Kampala City Authority has sent a team to the village she is reported to be visiting to trace this contact and continue 21 days follow-up.

November 3, 2017

Uganda: Marburg virus

The number of cumulative cases of Marburg virus disease has grown to 15: 2 confirmed, 4 suspected, 3 probable cases and 6 ruled out.

In Kween district, a high-risk contact was found to have developed Marburg-like symptoms. The patient is a 38-year-old male, brother to the confirmed case and the probable case. Because of his close contact with the probable and confirmed cases, he was listed as a high-risk contact. However, he refused review and follow-up by the contact tracing/surveillance team despite several attempts to do so.

On the Oct. 24, however, he accepted to speak to the contact tracing team, which noted that he had developed Marburg-like symptoms. He was transported to the isolation unit with fever, body weakness, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, joint pains and history of vomiting blood while at home. Despite the tireless efforts from a dedicated case management team to revive this case, he died Oct. 26. A blood sample picked from this patient was sent to Uganda Virus Research Institute and tested positive for Marburg virus disease.

The other suspect case is a 25-year-old female from a village called Government Lodge, Kawowo parish, in Kapchorwa district, who presented with Marburg-like symptoms. She has since been isolated, and a sample was collected for confirmation. A pregnancy test was done and is positive. Her condition is, however, stable.

The new probable case is a 23-year-old male from Toywo village, Western Division, Kapchorwa Municipality. He shared a ward with and his bed was next to the deceased confirmed case. A blood sample was collected, and the case is still under isolation at Kapchorwa hospital in stable condition.

Kenya: Marburg virus

In Trans-Nzoia County, 4 people have been quarantined over a suspected outbreak of the highly infectious and deadly Marburg virus disease.

Reports indicate that the suspected patients are from neighboring Uganda and arrived in Bwayi area of Kwanza Constituency on Oct. 29 seeking treatment for "a strange disease" from a local herbalist.

The disease has Ebola-like symptoms.

County Director of Health Norbert Musundi says that an emergency committee has been formed to investigate the situation, adding that blood samples from the patients have been sent to KEMRI for screening.

"We got information about people from Uganda who visited the herbalist on Oct. 29 seeking treatment for an unknown disease. Our officers are keenly monitoring her and the people who visited," said Musundi.

The herbalist and her husband have been put under incubation for 21 days, to make sure she was free of the virus.

Pakistan: Chikungunya

The number of suspected chikungunya cases rose in Karachi as 12 more patients were admitted to hospitals, taking the total number of patients up to 243 since 1 Oct 2017.

According to a report issued by the Sindh Health Department, a total 4,602 chikungunya suspected cases have been reported across the province since 1 Jan 2017.

The number of suspected chikungunya cases during October 2017 has reached 254 across Sindh, of which 243 cases have been reported from Karachi.

In 2016, the number of suspected chikungunya cases reported from Karachi was 405.

Chikungunya is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes, and its symptoms include high fever, joint pains, joint swellings, rashes, headaches, muscle pains, nausea and fatigue. Chikungunya is rarely fatal, with the death rate of those afflicted at less than one percent.

USA: E. coli

Kids love petting pigs, goats, and other livestock at fairs and pumpkin patches, but an increase in potentially fatal bacterial infections has officials warning against this activity. According to District Health Department no. 10, cases of human sickness caused by a specific strain of the bacterium, E. coli, increased in the summer of 2017 in Mecosta and Newaygo counties.

Dr Jennifer Morse, medical director for 3 local health departments, said "these increases are concerning because the resulting illness can be life-threatening. With the investigations that have been completed thus far, the major source seems to be coming from farm animals."

According to the health department, Escherichia coli, commonly called E. coli, is one of the most common bacteria on earth. It is found normally in the intestinal tracts of healthy humans and warm-blooded animals. Not all strains of E. coli are capable of causing illness; however, many types of E. coli that cause illness are relatively harmless to the long-term health of infected humans and can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting and a low-grade fever.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

The Minister of State for Health, Dr Osagie Ehanire, has announced laboratory confirmation of 6 additional cases among the suspected cases of monkeypox.

These include 2 cases each in Bayelsa and Akwa Ibom states, one in Enugu state and one in the Federal Capital Territory, making it a total of 9 confirmed cases of monkeypox in Nigeria.

As of Oct. 25, a total of 94 suspected cases have been reported from 11 states

USA: West Nile virus

Amid a heat wave that could make West Nile virus more likely to spread, the number of people infected with the disease in Los Angeles county continued to climb this week.

At least 230 people in LA county have fallen sick with West Nile this year, and 17 of them have died, health officials said Oct. 27. The number of people infected is already the 3rd-highest ever in the county, according to health officials -- and the season has yet to end.

"We typically see cases until the end of November," said Dr Aiman Halai, head of the vector-borne disease unit at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. "West Nile virus is a risk in all areas of the county."

Though most people who get West Nile don't have any symptoms, one out of every 150 people infected develops serious problems that can include meningitis (swelling of the brain), vision loss, coma, and weeks-long or even permanent paralysis.

People 50 and older or whose immune systems are compromised are most likely to suffer from these severe consequences, but every year a few younger people also experience them, experts say.

Across California, more than 430 people have fallen sick with West Nile virus, and 24 have died this year.

England: E. coli

No country wants to learn an E. coli serotype not previously associated much with human illness is making people sick -- again. Especially when it wasn't ever known to be a resident strain in the country until 3 years ago. The new reality in the UK is the O55:H7 serotype, which scientists say is "a recent precursor to the virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157: H7." It is E. coli O157:H7 and 6 other Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli serotypes known as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 that cause foodborne outbreaks.

USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) declared those 6 strains as adulterants in meat. Previously, only E. coli O157:H7 was on the adulterants list and targeted for verification testing. FSIS does not currently ban E. coli O55, which is making people sick again in the UK. 

PHE's 1st round with the rare E. coli O55 strain was an outbreak in the Dorset area that began in July 2014 and caused 31 illnesses before it ended in November 2015. No source was found, and PHE was under fire for less-than transparent communications with the victims and their families. Parents of 2 of the child victims were especially critical, saying they were "disappointed and frustrated" by PHE's controlled the information. The UK's Food Standards Agency was also involved in the O55 outbreak investigation, which came to naught by the time it wrapped up its investigation in March 2016.

The case of a 19-year-old woman who 1st experienced symptoms of diarrhea and abdominal pain in September, confirms O55 is back. Her kidneys failed from hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). She was last reported in critical condition at St Bartholomew's Hospital in London.

Preliminary investigations into E. coli in Surrey have revealed one case of the strain has been confirmed in the county while other E. coli cases in children in the area have been identified as being potentially linked. Public Health England (PHE) said it is working closely with environmental health officers and public health teams from Surrey County Council to investigate the case.

Namibia: Anthrax

Botswana has imposed a ban on the movement of all cloven-hooved animals following an outbreak of anthrax in Mohembo area in the northern part of the country. Veterinary Services director Letlhogile Modisa said Oct. 30 that movement of all cloven-hooved animals into the affected district is not permitted.

According to Modisa, social slaughter permits would only be issued following favorable health inspections and provision of letters from relevant authorities. Modisa however said movement of fresh products is allowed as long as they are carried in sealed containers/trucks. 

Botswana recently detected dead hippos floating in the Okavango River, after more than 100 of the animals were suspected to have been killed by the disease in neighboring Namibia.

Madagascar: Plague

WHO continues to support the Ministry of Public Health and other national authorities in Madagascar to monitor and respond to the outbreak of plague. The number of new cases of pulmonary plague has continued to decline in all active areas across the country. In the past 2 weeks, 12 previously affected districts reported no new confirmed or probable cases of pulmonary plague. From Aug. 1 to Oct. 24, a total of 1,309 suspected cases of plague, including 93 deaths (7 percent), were reported. Of these, 882 (67 percent) were clinically classified as pulmonary plague, 221 (17 percent) were bubonic plague, 1 was septicemic, and 186 were unspecified (further classification of cases is in process).

Of the 882 clinical cases of pneumonic plague, 235 (27 percent) were confirmed, 300 (34 percent) were probable and 347 (39 percent) remain suspected (additional laboratory results are in process). Fourteen strains of Yersinia pestis have been isolated and were sensitive to antimicrobials recommended by the National Program for the Control of Plague.

Between Aug. 1 and Oct. 24, 29 districts have reported confirmed and probable cases of pulmonary plague. The number of districts that reported confirmed and probable cases of pulmonary plague during the last 2 weeks reduced to 17.

China: Foot and mouth disease

China's Ministry of Agriculture reported Oct. 30 a case of foot and mouth disease [FMD] in a pig breeding farm in southern Guangdong province.

The O-type strain of the disease was found in 30 pigs on a farm in Huizhou city last week, the ministry said, leading to the cull of 71 pigs to bring the disease under control. Another case of the disease was found in Guangdong earlier this year.

China is the world's top producer and consumer of pork.

USA: E. coli

More than 300 Marines at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego are being treated for possible E. coli infection, MCRD officials confirm. MCRD San Diego said that as of Oct. 31, 302 recruits are being treated for diarrheal illness and some Marines have been infected with the Shiga toxin producing E. coli bacteria. A total of 10 recruits have been admitted at off-base facilities while the rest are being treated on base.

Cases have been reported at both MCRD San Diego and the Edson Range at Camp Pendleton.

"Our immediate focus is identifying, isolating and treating recruits who present symptoms," said Brig. Gen. William Jurney, commanding general, MCRD San Diego and the Western Recruiting Region. "We are working to identify the cause of the sickness, making sure our affected recruits can return to training as soon as possible and continuing training for recruits not influenced."

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

A young man has fallen prey to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, raising the death toll from the disease to 7 in the Karak district, locals said.

The latest victim, a man from the Sarki Lawagher area, died in the Lady Reading Hospital in Peshawar after suffering from the virus for more than a week, according to relatives.

However, Dr Majid Khattak, in-charge of the special unit established for dealing with the fatal disease in the local health department, told media persons in Karak Nov. 1 that the Congo virus had taken the lives of several people in the district, but the exact number was not available as the patients were treated in hospitals outside the district.

October 27, 2017

China: Avian influenza

China on Oct. 17 confirmed an outbreak of bird flu at broiler chicken farms in a central province, the Ministry of Agriculture said in a statement.

Flocks are particularly vulnerable to avian flu during the drier winter months, following which outbreaks usually die down.

The outbreak in Hexian, a city of about 500 000 people in the province of Anhui, was caused by the H5N6 strain of virus, and has been brought under control, the ministry said on its website.

Recent research into a different strain of avian influenza has now been released creating concern for the possibility of a pandemic outbreak of the disease. In 2013, an influenza virus that had never before been detected began circulating among poultry in China. It caused several waves of human infection, and in late 2016, the number of people to become sick from the H7N9 virus suddenly started to rise. As of late July 2017, nearly 1,600 people had tested positive for avian H7N9. Nearly 40 percent of those infected had died.

In early 2017, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, professor of pathobiological sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, received a sample of H7N9 virus isolated from a patient in China who had died of the flu. He and his research team subsequently began work to characterize and understand it. The first of those results were published Oct. 19 in Cell Host & Microbe.

For the first time, Kawaoka says, his team has identified an influenza virus strain that is both transmissible between ferrets (the best animal model proxy for human influenza infections) and lethal, both in the animal originally infected and in otherwise healthy ferrets in close contact with these infected animals.

Germany: Avian influenza

A wild duck has been found positive for HPAI H5N8 in the municipality of Osterwald in the German county Bentheim, about 15 miles from the Dutch city of Almelo.

The Friedrich-Löffler Institute (FLI) confirmed the infection Oct. 20. The finding has come to light on the basis of the German Wild Bird Monitoring Program. There are no poultry farms in a 3 km radius around the site. No restriction area has been set.

Panama: Hantavirus

The Ministry of Health in Los Santos province on Oct. 20 confirmed that a 10-year-old child was positive for hantavirus.

The epidemiologist Carlos Muñoz stated that this child from Las Tablas Abajo, was admitted to the Joaquin Pablo Franco hospital with a sickle cell-like presentation Oct. 17, but since he did not recover and because his platelets declined, a hantavirus test was done.

Muñoz stated the he was first moved to the Pediatric Specialties Hospital in Panama City for his sickle cell problem, but the pediatrician ordered the hantavirus test and later was informed that the hantavirus test was positive for this fever.

On. Oct. 20, the child was reported to be in stable condition.

Namibia: Anthrax

The Southern African region has been warned to brace itself for the spread of anthrax, which has killed more than 100 hippos in Namibia. The disease has already spread to Botswana through the Okavango River.

The Director of Department of Veterinary Service, Dr Letshwenyo Modisa, said his department and other stakeholders were monitoring the situation. Speaking during a live broadcast on Botswana Television, Modisa said they had removed more than eight carcasses of hippos from the Okavango River. He said the carcasses were spilling into the country from Namibia through the river. The river, which flows in the northern part of the country, is shared between Botswana, Namibia and Angola.

According to Modisa, the infection occurs when the bacteria enters a cut or scratch in the skin or through inhalation. But he allayed fears that crocodiles and other wild animals which feed on the infected carcass are immune from infection adding that they help in mitigating the spread of the disease by feeding on the carcasses.

As the number of hippos that died of suspected anthrax from neighboring Namibia rises, Botswana has confirmed that at least three hippos have died in the country. The Director of Wildlife and National Parks, Otisitswe Tiroyamodimo, said while the death toll may rise in the near future, a considerable number of dead hippos came floating in the Okavango River at Mohembo in northern Botswana from Namibia. He said they are working around the clock to remove the dead hippos from the river to curb further spread.

Pakistan: Chikungunya

As many as 29 fresh cases of chikungunya have been reported from Karachi, taking the patients toll to 160 since Oct. 1.

According to a report issued by Sindh Health Department, 4,519 suspected cases of chikungunya have been reported across the province since Jan. 1.

In October, a total of 171 chikungunya cases surfaced in the province, of which 160 were reported from Karachi, while there were 11 from other parts of the province. In 2016, a total of 405 suspected cases of chikungunya were reported from Karachi.

Experts said that chikungunya was transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Major symptoms include high fever, joint pain, joint swelling, rash, headache, muscle pain, nausea and fatigue. The disease is rarely fatal, while the death rate among affected people is less than one percent.

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

Another man in Karachi has contracted Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and been admitted to the isolation ward of the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) in critical condition.

JPMC Executive Director Dr Seemin Jamali said the resident of Frontier Colony was brought to the hospital with fever, headache and symptoms of a viral infection.

He was tested for dengue while his blood sample was also sent to the Aga Khan University Hospital to test for CCHF, following which it was confirmed that he was infected with the lethal tick-borne viral disease, added Dr Seemin.

So far four patients from Quetta and one from Karachi have died in the city's hospitals because of Congo fever, while a young man infected with the virus survived the largely lethal disease after being treated at the JPMC last month.

Experts say CCHF is a lethal disease caused by a virus found in a tick that attaches itself to the bodies of livestock and cattle, and when humans come into contact with the animals, they get infected and contract high-grade fever, headaches and internal and external bleeding.

Brazil: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

The City of Contagem, in the metropolitan region, is investigating whether the death of a 42-year-old man Oct. 20 was caused by spotted fever. Days before, he had gone to the Ecological Park of Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, and found ticks by the body, according to information received by the advisory of the municipal Executive. According to the Municipal Health Department, he was admitted to the Emergency Care Unit Oct. 16, and, on Oct. 20, was transferred to the Municipal Hospital of Contagem, with the suspicion of spotted fever.

With the worsening of the clinical picture, the patient was referred to the Intensive Care Center (ICU) of the hospital, where the "requests for serologies to confirm the initial diagnostic hypothesis" were initiated. The patient eventually died.

According to the Report, dengue and chikungunya were ruled out and the case was communicated to the Epidemiological Surveillance Department. The secretariat also reported that it awaits results from tests to confirm the diagnosis of the case.

In September 2016, a 10 year old boy died of spotted fever, days after visiting the Ecological Park of Pampulha. Since then, several measures to combat the disease transmitting tick have been applied at the site, such as isolation of areas for application of acaricides, weeding and irrigation.

Uganda: Marburg virus

The World Health Organization is working to contain an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD) that has appeared in eastern Uganda on the border with Kenya.

At least one person is confirmed to have died of MVD and several hundred people may have been exposed to the virus at health facilities and at traditional burial ceremonies in Kween District, a mountainous area 300 km northeast of Kampala.

The first case was detected by the Ministry of Health on Oct. 17; a 50-year-old woman who died at a health center of fever, bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory testing at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed the cause of death as MVD.

The woman's brother had also died of similar symptoms three weeks earlier and was buried at a traditional funeral. He worked as a game hunter and lived near a cave inhabited by Rousettus bats, which are natural hosts of the Marburg virus.

North Korea: Typhoid fever

Radio Free Asia (RFA) says that typhoid fever is spreading in Ryanggang province in North Korea. Quoting Japan's news outlet Asia Press and a source in North Korea, the USA-based broadcaster reported on Oct. 24 that outbreaks of typhoid were reported this month and related deaths are increasing among the older people.

RFA said that North Korean authorities are struggling to contain the disease as it is spreading rapidly since the first case was reported in June 2017.

Jiro Ishimaru, head of Asia Press' Osaka office, told RFA that the outbreak is attributable to the North's poor water supply, sewerage system, and the Yalu River as many local residents in Ryanggang province drink the water from the river without boiling it.

Typhoid fever, so-called enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, has a totally different presentation from that of the commoner kinds of salmonellosis. Epidemiologically, usually spread by contaminated food or water, typhoid is not a zoonosis like the more commonly seen types of salmonellosis. Clinically, vomiting and diarrhea are typically absent; indeed, constipation is frequently reported.

Madagascar: Plague

A plague outbreak in Madagascar has infected 1,192 people since August 2017, with 124 deaths, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [OCHA] and Madagascar's National Bureau of Risk Management and Disaster reported Oct. 23.

The majority of cases, 67 percent, were the pneumonic form of the disease, which can spread from person to person.

Plague is caused by infection with the bacterium Yersinia pestis and is typically spread through the bite of infected fleas, frequently carried by rats, causing bubonic plague. Symptoms include painful, swollen lymph nodes, called bubos, as well as fever, chills and coughing.

Pneumonic plague is more virulent or damaging and is an advanced form characterized by a severe lung infection that can be transmitted from person to person via airborne droplets such as through coughing or sneezing, for example. The incubation period is short, and an infected person may die within 12 to 24 hours. Both forms can be treated with antimicrobials, making early detection a priority.

Of Madagascar's 114 districts, 40 have reported cases of pneumonic plague and less than 30 percent of people who have had contact with cases can be traced, according to the UN office.

October 20, 2017

Namibia: Anthrax

Part of Bwabwata National Park -- where confirmed anthrax cases have killed nearly 110 hippos and 20 buffalo since the start of October 2017 -- has been closed to tourists. "[For the] safety of tourists intending to visit the park, the area in which mortalities are taking place is not open for tourists but is exclusively for wildlife management. However, as a precaution, we urge tourists not to go close to the affected area by any means," said the Environment and Tourism Ministry spokesperson, Romeo Muyunda.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry has also issued an alert to the public and farmers in the surrounding areas of Bwabwata to say the anthrax outbreak has been confirmed.

The destruction of the carcasses has started and will continue where and when practical. Government has also started to procure protective gear for staff members involved in the operation.

Madagascar: Plague

A plague outbreak in Madagascar has killed at least 89 people and 1,032 cases have been reported so far. The government has deployed resources to curb the disease, but many obstacles remain. As plague cases rose last week in Madagascar's capital, many city dwellers panicked. They waited in long lines for antimicrobials at pharmacies and reached through bus windows to buy masks from street vendors. Schools have been canceled, and public gatherings are banned. For the first time, the disease long seen in the country's remote areas is largely concentrated in its two largest cities, Antananarivo and Toamasina.

Global health officials have responded quickly. The WHO, criticized for its slow response to the 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, has released $1.5 million and sent plague specialists and epidemiologists. The Red Cross is sending its first-ever plague treatment center to Madagascar.

On Oct. 11, Madagascar's minister of public health rallied doctors and paramedics in a packed auditorium at the country's main hospital, saying they're not allowed to go on vacation. "Let's be strong, because it's only us. We're at the front, like the military," Mamy Lalatiana Andriamanarivo said. The outbreak could continue until the end of infection season in April 2018, experts warn.

Madagascar has about 400 plague cases per year, or more than half of the world's total, according to a 2016 WHO report. Usually, they are cases of bubonic plague in the rural highlands. Bubonic plague is carried by rats and spread to humans through flea bites. It is fatal about the half the time, if untreated. Most of the cases in the current outbreak are pneumonic plague, a more virulent form that spreads through coughing, sneezing, or spitting and is almost always fatal if untreated. In some cases, it can kill within 24 hours. Like the bubonic form, it can be treated with common antimicrobials if caught in time.

The WHO calls plague a "disease of poverty" caused in part by unsanitary living conditions. Madagascar has a per capita GDP of about USD 400, and national programs to control the disease have been "hampered by operational and management difficulties", according to a report by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. But the airborne pneumonic plague, which accounts for about 75 percent of cases in the current outbreak, makes no class distinctions. "Normally, the people who catch the plague are dirty people who live in poor areas, but in this case we find the well-to-do, the directors, the professors, people in every place in society, catching the disease," said Dr Manitra Rakotoarivony, Madagascar's director of health promotion.

Netherlands: Avian influenza

Dutch poultry farmers, already left reeling by a contaminated egg scandal, were in a new flap Oct. 13 over an outbreak of bird flu, with thousands of hens to be destroyed.

"An outbreak of a variant of H5 bird flu has been detected in a poultry farm in Zeeland province," Economic Affairs Minister Henk Kamp said.

All 42 000 egg-laying hens in the southern Netherlands farm will have to be culled "to stop the disease spreading" in accordance with European regulations, he added in a statement.

"A mild pathogenic variant of H5 can mutate into a very contagious and deadly strain for chickens; therefore in all such cases the animals have to be put down."

Seychelles: Plague

Samples from patients in Seychelles suspected to be ill with pneumonic plague tested negative at a WHO partner laboratory in Paris, France on Oct. 17. The 10 samples were shipped by the Seychelles Ministry of Health and WHO to the collaborating center for Yersinia at the Pasteur Institute to confirm the status of several suspected and one probable case -- a 34-year-old Seychelles national who had returned from Madagascar with plague-like symptoms.

WHO is working with the Seychelles health authorities to reduce the risk of plague spreading from neighboring Madagascar, which faces an unprecedented outbreak that has killed more than 70 people since August 2017. No plague cases have been confirmed in the Seychelles.

A total of 13 people remain admitted in isolation in hospital. The index patient (probable case) is still admitted on the hospital ward and has no symptoms and is stable.

Indonesia: Avian influenza

An outbreak of H5N1 in Bali is confirmed. To date, no additional confirmed cases have been reported. 5 suspected cases were identified and are waiting for laboratory confirmation. A Ministry of Health Rapid Response Team is investigating the outbreak to find additional cases and possible source of infection.

Mauritius: Plague

Plague is gaining ground in the Indian Ocean. While the last report shows 610 cases and 63 deaths in Madagascar [the latest numbers I have seen from Madagascar are 687 and 57 deaths. A man was placed in quarantine in Mauritius because of a suspicion of plague. The patient was admitted on Oct. 16 at Souillac Hospital, a town located in the south of the island.

According to the protocol established in Mauritius, this hospital is empowered to take care of this type of patients. Analyzes have been carried out and the results are expected, says the newspaper L'Express de Maurice. Recall that the countries of the Indian Ocean zone are concerned of the spread of plague that is currently prevalent in Madagascar.

Unlike the Seychelles whose government has decided to suspend its air links with Madagascar, Mauritius or Reunion have decided to call for more vigilance of the first signs of plague in any person returning from this destination.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

The monkeypox virus may have spread to 11 states with 74 suspected cases recorded, Minister of Health, Isaac Adewole, has said. Mr. Adewole made the disclosure in Abuja Oct. 18 when he briefed State House correspondents on the outcome of the meeting of the Federal Executive Council, FEC.

The federal government confirmed that 33 suspected cases of the virus were recorded in 7 states. After samples of the suspected cases were sent for test at a WHO laboratory in Senegal, only 3 cases from Bayelsa tested positive. A few days later, however, an outbreak was reported in Delta state with another nine hospitalizations there.

Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although less severe.

October 13, 2017

Madagascar: Plague

Concern about an unusually deadly seasonal outbreak of plague has gripped Madagascar. More than 500 people have been sickened and more than 35 have died just since August, according to Madagascar's Ministry of Public Health.

To try to stifle the spread, the government has forbidden public gatherings, including sporting events, and schools have closed for insecticide treatments that kill plague-spreading fleas. People have swarmed pharmacies, desperately seeking face masks and any antibiotics they can get. The WHO announced that it has released $1.5 million in emergency funds and delivered nearly 1.2 million antimicrobial doses to help combat the outbreak.

"This epidemic is our common enemy, we must defeat it,” said Henry Laurent Rahajson, Minister of Communication and Relations. He said the government has mobilized all forms of response, coordinating with international relief agencies. “The national plan of action against plague has been adapted to the present situation, with the support of national and international partners.”

Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is endemic to Madagascar and pops up all year-round. But outbreaks can erupt between September to November, with seasonal shifts in rat and flea populations. The disease is spreading not just in rural, agricultural areas; it's also spreading in cities. As of the end of September, the disease had taken hold in 10 cities across the island, including the capital, Antananarivo.

Seychelles: Plague

Health officials in Seychelles have confirmed that 3 people have tested positive for plague. According to Today in Seychelles, a Seychellois basketball coach died from the disease in September 2017 in a hospital in Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, where 42 people have died from the "Black Death."

The coach was assisting the Seychelles men's reigning champion of the Beau Vallon Heat in Madagascar during the Indian Ocean Club Championship. The other members of the Seychellois basketball delegation, who were in close contact with the coach, have been under observation since they returned to the country.

According to the Seychelles News Agency, the Seychelles' Ministry of Health on Oct. 3 advised all airlines and travel agents to discourage people from traveling to Madagascar due to the plague outbreak. Additional health measures at Seychelles' main airport have also been put in place.

Nigeria: Monkeypox

Fear has gripped the residents of Bayelsa State as a deadly viral epidemic known as "monkeypox" has broken out. According to the World Health Organization, monkeypox is a rare disease that occurs primarily in remote parts of Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests.

"The monkeypox virus can cause a fatal illness in humans and, although it is similar to human smallpox which has been eradicated, it is much milder," WHO says.

A medical doctor and 10 persons who came down with the monkeypox have been quarantined in an isolation center at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri. The isolation center was reportedly created by the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control and the epidemiological team of the state's Ministry of Health to control the spread of the virus.

The NCDC and the epidemiological team were said to be tracking 49 other persons who were said to have come in contact with persons who were already infected.

Russia: African swine fever

A new outbreak of African swine fever has been reported in the Zukovo region of Russia. The outbreak was reported Oct. 2 on a farm, affecting about 27 swine.

Mozambique: Anthrax

Officials in Mozambique are fighting three new outbreaks of anthrax affecting wildlife in their country.

The first outbreak was reported in a national park in Ferreira. Affected animals include cape buffalo and greater kudu, a type of woodland antelope. The second outbreak was reported in a national park at Masitonto, affecting greater kudu and African buffalo. That game reserve is close to the Karingani, Ferreira and Uanetzi game farms and Kruger National Park where an outbreak of the disease was reported in early August.

The third outbreak was reported in a national park near Uanetze, affecting African elephants.


USA: Avian influenza

A total of two flocks of birds at the recently concluded Central Washington State Fair were infected with bird flu, but health officials say it's a strain that has not been shown to infect humans.

The Yakima Health District sent local medical providers a notice about the possible exposure to fairgoers. "The avian influenza viruses identified in 2015 to the present in U.S. birds are not known to have caused human illness but similar viruses have caused human illness in other countries," the alert said.


Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

Another Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus patient died during treatment in Quetta Oct. 5. Hospital sources said a Congo virus affected patient, stated to be Afghan national, was shifted to Fatima Jinnah Hospital Quetta Oct. 4. Despite all out efforts of the medics the Congo virus patient died.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis in humans. The disease is sporadic and uncommon, but may have a severe clinical course with hemorrhagic manifestations.

Domestic livestock are regarded as the main hosts of the disease and can transfer the disease during their viremic stage to humans.


Italy: Chikungunya

Following reports of chikungunya cases reported in Lazio, a new outbreak has been identified in Calabria. Everything started from four cases reported in September - one in Lazio and 3 in Emilia-Romagna - involving residents of these regions who had developed indicative symptoms of infection last August. These cases were positive by laboratory tests.

In September, a team of the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Superior Health Institute (ISS), consisting of entomologists and epidemiologists, went to Guardavalle Marina to investigate the epidemic focus, collect samples from people to confirm the infection, monitor the vector Aedes albopictus, and provide support for mosquito control of the affected areas. Through the retrospective epidemiological survey, in the period August-September 2017, 55 cases (suspected, probable and confirmed) of chikungunya fever were reported in the Guardavalle area.

Namibia: Anthrax

More than 100 hippos have died in Namibia after they are believed to have contracted anthrax. Rangers at Bwabwata National Park say 109 of the animals have perished since last week as pictures show dozens of bloated bodies floating in murky water. Workers believe the deaths were caused by an anthrax outbreak, which is caused by bacterial spores that occur naturally.

Apollinaris Kannyinga, parks deputy director of the north-east regions, told The Namibian that such outbreaks are not uncommon. They usually occur when waters in the Kavango River, where a large number of bodies have been found, are running low, he added.

Russia: Foot and mouth disease

Officials in Russia are trying to contain three new outbreaks of Foto and mouth disease reported recently.

The outbreaks, involving cattle, sheep and goats, were reported in Urmekeevo, Kandry and Ermuhametovo regions. They began around Sept. 30 in farms or backyards.


Saudi Arabia: MERS

Two new cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome have been reported in Saudi Arabia.

A 77-year-old Saudi male from Albukaria is in critical condition. His is classified as a primary case with a history of direct contact with camels in the 14 days preceding onset of illness.

A 72-year-old Saudi male from Tabuk reported to be in stable condition at the time of confirmation. Again there was a history of direct contact with camels in the 14 days preceding onset of illness.


Botswana: Foot and mouth disease

Botswana's beef industry is facing an uncertain future following a fresh outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the Ngamiland district in the northern part of the country. The Ministry of Agriculture and food Security explained that this comes about after reports from famers of sighting cattle that were showing suspicious signs.

Dr Letlhogile Modisa, the director of the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) said his officers have followed up the allegations and found 5 animals that were showing signs that are consistent with the disease.

"As a result of these findings, the slaughter and movement of all cloven hoofed animals and their fresh products within and out of the district are suspended until further notice," he said. Modisa also explained that export of all meat products from export slaughter and processing plants produced in the last 30 days in Ngamiland has been suspended.

Switzerland: Meningitis

The number of people contracting meningitis from tick bites is on the rise in Switzerland, according to the federal health office.

Since the beginning of the year, 214 people have contracted the serious viral illness from a tick bite, the SonntagsZeitung wrote. That's a higher number than in any of the previous 10 years. The increase in tick-borne meningitis cases is worrying the federal health office, which wants people to vaccinate themselves against the disease


Ivory Coast: African swine fever

A new outbreak of African swine fever has been reported in the Ivory Coast. Authorities say the outbreak began Sept. 2 on a farm in the Commune de Ferkessédougou. 
Nearly 500 pigs were reportedly infected. Investigations are being carried out to evaluate the extent of the disease.


Puerto Rico: Leptospirosis

A total of 4 deaths in Hurricane Maria's aftermath are being investigated as possible cases of Leptospirosis, a disease spread by animals' urine. A total of 10 people have come down with suspected cases of leptospirosis, Gov. Ricardo Rossello said at a news conference.

On a U.S. territory where a 3rd of customers remain without running water 3 weeks after the hurricane, some became ill after turning to local streams to relieve their thirst. A 61-year-old bus driver, took a drink from a stream near his concrete home on a hillside in Canovanas a week after the storm. He then developed a fever, his skin turned yellow and within a week, he died at a hospital in Carolina, according to his widow. Dr. Juan Santiago said the patient was among 5 who came in his emergency clinic last week with similar symptoms after drinking from streams in Canovanas and Loíza.

October 6, 2017

Madagascar: Plague

An outbreak of highly contagious plague has claimed 30 lives in the impoverished Indian Ocean island nation of Madagascar over the last 2 months. "We have recorded 194 suspected cases of plague, including 30 deaths," health official Manitra Rakotoarivony said in a statement, updating the death toll from 25.

WHO is rapidly scaling up its response to an outbreak of plague in Madagascar that has spread to the capital and port towns. On Sept. 30, the Malagasy government confirmed that the death of a Seychellois national was due to pneumonic plague. The basketball coach died in hospital in Antananarivo Sept. 27 while visiting the island nation for a sports event. Health authorities are tracing people with whom he came into contact in recent days and who may have become exposed to the illness. Once identified, they will be given antimicrobials to prevent infection as a precautionary measure.

Pneumonic plague has been detected in several cities in Madagascar. It is a form of plague that is highly transmissible (person-to-person) and quickly causes death without treatment. WHO is concerned that the outbreak may spread because it is already present in several cities and this is just the start of the plague epidemic season, which usually runs from September to April. 

Plague is endemic to Madagascar but contrary to past outbreaks, this one affects large urban areas, including the capital and port cities. The overall risk of further spread at the national level is high, at the regional level is moderate due to frequent flights to neighboring Indian Ocean islands, and at the global level is perceived to be low. 

Europe: Hepatitis A

Since the last rapid risk assessment on this multi-country hepatitis A outbreak, 19 EU/EEA countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom-England and Wales) have reported 1,363 new outbreak-confirmed cases. 

As of Sept. 27, the number of outbreak-confirmed cases reported in 20 EU/EEA countries since June 1, 2016 is 2,863. The largest number of cases was reported in March 2017. However, there may be substantial reporting delays (weeks or even months) in sequencing information and the number of cases with onset in more recent months is likely to increase once more sequencing results are available, particularly from Spain and Germany.

The 11,212 cases reported from January to August 2017 represent a 4-fold increase compared to the average 2,594 cases reported annually for the same period between 2012 and 2015. The year 2016 was excluded from the comparison as the current outbreak was already taking place at the time.

USA: Swine flu

The Delaware Division of Public Health announced Sept. 27 the state's first laboratory-confirmed case of a variant influenza virus in a female Sussex County resident under age 18, who had close contact with pigs at a county fair in Maryland. The case is mild and the individual is recovering. No additional information will be released on the individual to protect her privacy.

When an influenza virus that normally infects pigs is found in people, it is called a "variant" influenza virus. While it is not possible to determine exactly where the individual contracted the variant flu, also commonly known as the "swine flu", the Maryland Department of Agriculture has been investigating the appearance of this virus in pigs at the fairs in Charles and Frederick Counties. The Delaware resident reportedly had close contact with pigs at the Anne Arundel County Fair, the first suspected case of variant influenza from that event. On Sept. 27 the Maryland Department of Health announced "presumptive" positive cases of variant flu in Maryland residents who had close contact with pigs at the Anne Arundel County Fair as well.

Most commonly, human infections with swine flu occur in people who have been exposed to infected pigs. It is rare for influenza viruses that normally infect pigs to spread to people, but it is possible. Illnesses associated with variant influenza virus infections are usually mild with symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu, including fever and respiratory symptoms, such as sore throat and cough. While rare, limited human-to-human transmission of this variant also has occurred in the past, but has never been widespread or sustained.

USA: West Nile virus

The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development received confirmation of an unvaccinated, one-year-old Standardbred filly from Hillsdale County that tested positive for West Nile virus. The horse developed acute neurologic disease and was euthanized. No quarantines were issued.

This case brings the total number of reported cases in Michigan in 2017 to 14, one case from each of the following counties: Clinton, Hillsdale, Jackson, Livingston, Mecosta, Midland, Missaukee, Montcalm, Osceola, Ottawa, Roscommon, and St Joseph Counties, and two cases from Wexford County.

The Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Foresty confirmed the state's first case of West Nile virus for 2017 in a 12-year-old Quarter Horse gelding in Logan County. The horse was showing severe neurologic signs and was euthanized.

The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food confirmed West Nile virus in 4 horses in Weber, Cache and Uintah Counties. Horses included a 3-year-old Quarter Horse gelding, a 6-year-old Quarter Horse mare, a Quarter Horse gelding of unknown age, and a 6-year-old mare of unknown breed and age.

Of the 4 horses; 2 were treated and are recovering and 2 were euthanized. A 5th horse presenting with neurologic signs suggestive of West Nile virus did not have samples submitted and was euthanized due to the severity of clinical signs.

Italy: Chikungunya

On Sept. 6-7, the National Reference Laboratory for arboviral infections based at the National Institute of Health, Italy, received serum and urine samples from three patients with a history of high fever (over 101.4 F), severe joint pain and an itching skin rash. Symptoms had started while they were on holiday near the coastal town of Anzio. The patients lived in the same home, and none had travelled to chikungunya, dengue or Zika endemic areas in the two weeks before symptom onset. The two patients who developed symptoms at the beginning of August were chikungunya IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed through a neutralization test. The third patient, who was symptomatic at the time of sample collection, was IgM positive. Chikungunya virus was detected by RT-PCR followed by nested PCR in both serum and urine and was isolated from urine.

The regional health authorities immediately implemented measures around this initial cluster, which are described in the national plan for chikungunya surveillance and control. The three patients had referred to other individuals in their neighborhood who had developed similar symptoms since the beginning of August 2017. Epidemiological surveillance was enhanced to identify additional cases. As of Sep 20, 86 confirmed autochthonous cases of chikungunya were reported to the regional surveillance system; the investigation is ongoing.

Pakistan: Chikungunya

At least 241 suspected cases have been reported throughout Sindh province since Sept. 1; out of these 241 cases, 154 emerged from Karachi alone.

Sindh Health Department released a report that 4,329 chikungunya suspected cases surfaced in the province, out of which 3,462 were from Karachi, while the rest of the cases surfaced in Tharparkar/Mithi, Sanghar and Umerkot.

Chikungunya is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. The major symptoms include high fever, joint pain, joint swelling, rash, headache, muscle pain, nausea and fatigue. Chikungunya is rarely fatal, and the death rate of the disease-affected people is less than one percent.

Kenya: Malaria

A malaria outbreak has killed 15 people in North Horr in one week, with 129 others infected.

Marsabit County Director of Health Dr Boru Okotu said there were 186 people with similar symptoms, with 136 testing positive. Dr Okotu said that even though Marsabit county is considered a low-risk malaria zone, the wards affected have been experiencing heavy rains since July, providing a fertile ground for mosquito breeding.

The Health Services of Oaxaca reported that according to the Unified Information System of Epidemiological Surveillance (SUIVE), eight cases of hepatitis A were reported in San Mateo del Mar. It is a region affected by the September earthquakes.

The patients were given timely treatment and follow-up of the diagnosis, so they do not represent an epidemiological emergency. It is indicated through a communiqué that operative personnel carried out intensive actions in this municipality, where an epidemiological fence was established with domiciliary visits to rule out outbreaks of disease in the population.

A brigade was deployed to strengthen strategies, with special emphasis on sanitary regulation and close monitoring of the levels of water chlorination in wells of the neighboring towns and homes in the municipality of San Mateo del Mar through personnel of the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (Cofepris).

Chile: Hantavirus

The number of people infected by hantavirus in the Araucanía region climbed to 14, after the report of a case in a 41-year-old man from Villarrica who presented with symptoms. He is hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Hernan Henriquez Aravena Hospital in Temuco.

Given this case, a call was issued to take preventive measures to avoid possible infections.

So far this year, there have been three deaths due to hantavirus, so that the main recommendations are to maintain food stuff protected from contact by rodents, air out storage areas that have been closed for a long period of time, and keep garbage in closed recipients, among others.

USA: Hepatitis A

Add 20 more cases and 22 more hospitalizations to San Diego County's ever-growing hepatitis A outbreak.

On Oct. 3 the county Health and Human Services Agency bumped the outbreak's confirmed cases from 461 to 481 and hospitalizations from 315 to 337. The death count associated with the outbreak, which started in November 2016, remained at 17 for a 2nd straight week.

For the last two weeks, the health department has reported having more than 40 cases under investigation awaiting confirmation from the CDC that they are of the same unique strains associated with other outbreak cases. No information on the number of cases under investigation was available. All of those who have died during the outbreak have had underlying medical conditions such as liver disease. Most were also homeless and/or drug users.

Vaccination events continue throughout the city as public health officials focus on those at the highest risk of infection such as health and safety workers and those who work with homeless outreach organizations and food service workers. Hepatitis A infection is seldom fatal unless other complications, such as liver disease or an autoimmune disorder, are already present.

Armenia: Tularemia

Twenty-five cases of tularemia infection were recorded in Armenia over the past month, 21 of them are residents of Artsvaberd village of Tavush region. Currently, only one of the infected people continues to receive inpatient treatment. There were no severe cases of illness. 

Authorities said the first case was clinically detected on Aug. 29. He was a resident of Yerevan who applied to the Nork infectious hospital. In early August, this person had visited the village of Artsvaberd of Tavush region. The specialists of the Center visited the village and found out that some villagers already had some clinical manifestations of tularemia, and had been locally wrongfully treated for angina.

The causative agent of tularemia was not isolated during the investigation of water and food samples, or from animals. That is, the infection occurred without a clear epizootic. 

September 29, 2017

Saudi Arabia: MERS

Saudi officials have reported a second fatality from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The current case is a 78-year-old male from Al Ain, who also had no identifiable known high risk exposures.

There have now been 6 cases of MERS-CoV infection identified in the UAE this year and 85 since 2012.

USA: Swine flu

Maryland authorities are investigating 5 cases of swine flu in pigs that were recently exhibited at the Charles County Fair. Seven Maryland residents have contracted a strain of swine flu from infected pigs at the fair.

The infected people had close contact with the 5 pigs that tested positive for swine flu, the Maryland Department of Health said Wednesday. None of the infected individuals has developed serious illness or been hospitalized.

The pig infection, announced earlier Sept. 20, led to a quarantine of all pigs at the fairgrounds and the cancellation of swine exhibits at 2 upcoming fairs in neighboring counties.

Transmission of swine flu, officially known as influenza A, to humans is rare but possible, the health department said. The Charles County Fair, which ran from 14-17 Sep 2017, took place at the Charles County fairgrounds in La Plata, Maryland.

All pigs exhibited there are now under a quarantine order and will not be released until 7 days after the last pig shows signs of illness. As a further step, Maryland Secretary of Agriculture Joseph Bartenfelder issued an order Sept. 19 canceling swine exhibits at the upcoming St. Mary's and Calvert County fairs.

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever has claimed another life in Karachi, bringing the total deaths due to the tick-borne viral disease to 6 in the country this year.

A 52-year-old resident of Mujahid Colony in Orangi Town, was brought to the Liaquat National Hospital on the night of Sept. 10 in an unstable condition, the health facility's spokesman, Anjum Rizvi, said.

Rizvi said the patient was tested positive for Congo fever the following day, adding that the patient was brought in with a severe headache, high-grade fever, bleeding and other complications, and he died on Sept. 12 due to multiple organ failure.

No more details of the deceased were released by the hospital's administration, but his relatives said he fell sick following a Muslim holiday after helping with slaughtering animals in his locality. They said Shah had complained of a fever and headache and initially avoided
getting treated, but was compelled to get admitted to the hospital when his condition worsened.

Sindh Health Department officials confirmed that Congo fever had claimed 6 lives in the country this year.

This September has proved to be the deadliest month of the year as regards Congo fever.

Iraq: Plague

The Iraqi Parliamentary Health and Environment Committee revealed on Sept. 24 the spread of plague and called for a national campaign against rodents that are causing the disease.

The deputy head of the Parliamentary Health and Environment Committee, Fares Al-Barefkani, said "new cases of plague have been identified, and the causes of the disease are known and are related to the poor municipal, disease control, sewage, and landfill services, in addition to widespread residential slums."

Al-Barefkani indicated that "there are a lot of residential slums that have emerged and are not under the control of Baghdad municipality and lack health services." He called for "a serious national campaign to combat rodents in the residential neighborhoods that cause plague and provide medicines that help to eliminate the disease" and stressed that "there is a need to support Baghdad municipality and the health and the environment directorates to educate people on how to combat plague."

USA: Anthrax

North Dakota has had its first confirmed case of anthrax this year in Sioux County, where 8 head of cattle died out of a herd of about 200. State Veterinarian Susan Keller says the surviving portion of the herd has been vaccinated, and the cattle are now under quarantine as required by state law. The case was confirmed Sept. 21 by the North Dakota State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory based on samples submitted by a veterinarian with the Mandan Veterinary Clinic.

Anthrax is caused by the bacteria “Bacillus anthracis”. The bacterial spores can lie dormant in the ground for decades and become active under ideal conditions, such as heavy rainfall, flooding, and drought. Animals are exposed to the disease when they graze or consume forage or water contaminated with the spores. Keller says any disturbance of the soil, which can come from times of drought followed by heavy rain or from human activity like fixing fences after a blizzard, can stir up spores.

In 2005, there were 109 anthrax cases that led to more than 500 confirmed livestock deaths and possible loss of more than 1000 head of livestock including cattle, bison, horses, sheep, llamas, and farmed deer and elk, mostly in eastern North Dakota, Keller says overland flooding may have been to blame.

Bhutan: Foot and mouth disease

Bhutan submitted on 16 Sep 2017 an immediate OIE notification on an FMD outbreak of serotype A, lineage G-VII, The event, reportedly, had started in March in Bhutan's Quarantine Station at Samdrup Jongkhar. The disease affected 21 milk cattle and 21 calves, which were, reportedly, "imported into the country for breeding." The report further specified that 11 of the 42 cattle died and that "the animals were given a supportive antibiotic treatment and released after fulfillment of the quarantine period and when they had clinically recovered from the infection as per national regulations." A sample collected from affected cattle in Samdrup Jongkhar on 1 Apr 2017 was genotyped as s FMDV-A, topotype Asia, lineage G-VII.

USA: West Nile virus

The Ohio Department of Agriculture confirmed on Sept. 13 the first positive cases of West Nile virus in Ohio horses for 2017.

Multiple cases in different parts of the state have been reported. The horses confirmed to have contracted WNV had not been vaccinated.

West Nile Virus is transmitted to horses via bites from infected mosquitoes. Clinical signs for WNV include flulike signs, where the horse seems mildly anorexic and depressed.

Iran: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

At least 120 people in Iran have caught the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever since March, Karim Amiri, an official with the Islamic Republic's veterinary organization, said. The fever has caused the death of 8 people in Iran since the beginning of the current Iranian fiscal year[21 Mar 2017], Amiri said.

The cases have been reported in 13 Iranian provinces including Sistan and Baluchestan, Fars, Kermanshah, Mazandaran, Esfaha, Hormozgan, Khorasan Razavi, Yazd, Gilan, Lorestan, Ardabil and Kerman, he said, adding that no death case is registered in Yazd, Gilan, Lorestan, Ardabil and Kerman so far. The official further advised Iranians to purchase the products from licensed centers.

Earlier the fever was reported mainly in eastern border provinces. 

USA: Black band disease

Black band disease is once again spreading through some corals around Kauai, according to Hanalei researcher Terry Lilley.

The disease appeared off the North Shore in 2012 and dissipated in mid-2015, but Lilley says he's now documenting a 5 percent rise in North Shore coral disease rate. He's also seen a rise in disease levels at Salt Pond Beach Park.

"There are numerous cyanobacterial infections on the rice corals now at Anini, Tunnels, Waipa, Wainiha, Charros, and Salt Pond. Some of the young new mound corals are also diseased," Lilley said.

At Waipa, Lilley said he found hundreds of new young blue rice corals growing quickly at the start of 2017, but recently documented that most of their growth has stopped.

Madagascar: Plague

Nearly 2 months after the onset of the 1st case of plague in this plague season, the listed victims have nearly reached 100. A total of 93 suspected plague patients have been registered between August and September, and 5 of them have died.

As many as 17 districts are now affected by the epidemic, particularly those of the central highlands. The disease is widespread in areas that do not usually have the plague, such as Vohémar and Toamasina, where imported cases were reported at the beginning of September. It was a person, infected with plague from Ankazobe, who traveled aboard a bush taxi to Toamasina, in late August, which caused the epidemic of pneumonic plague in Toamasina and Antananarivo to Vohémar city. Cases of bubonic plague are reported in other districts.

September 22, 2017

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

A 35-year-old man hailing from Quetta died of the Congo Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) at a private hospital in Karachi Sept. 13. Another Congo fever patient - a teenager from Quetta - was admitted to the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre's intensive care unit in critical condition Sept. 14.

Four people brought from Balochistan - all residents of Quetta's Satellite Town - for treatment of Congo virus have died at different hospitals in Karachi over the past 6 months.

The statistics surfaced after a 35-year-old resident of Quetta's Satellite Town, died of the virus at a private hospital in Karachi Sept. 13. The victim had been under treatment at the hospital's intensive care unit for the past few days, said a senior health official.

He revealed that a total of 45 patients brought to Karachi from Balochistan this year tested positive for the Congo virus, almost all of whom were residents of Quetta's Satellite Town. The official said all 4 people who died of Congo fever in Karachi this year were also from Satellite Town, Quetta.

A highly contagious viral disease caused by a tick, Congo Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever has a mortality rate of 40 percent. The majority of those infected by the virus were found to have come in contact with cattle and other livestock.

South Africa: Avian influenza

South Africa's 4th largest integrated poultry producer Sovereign Foods, which is based in Uitenhage, announced Sept. 14 that it has detected the avian influenza at a single layer house on a farm that forms part of the company's broader Uitenhage operations.

"Approximately 5,000 birds have been culled, which represent approximately one percent of Uitenhage's production pipeline," the company said in a brief statement.

"Sovereign Foods' management is currently taking the appropriate steps and following the prescribed protocols to prevent AI from spreading to other farms.

India: Japanese encephalitis

The deaths of 3 more children drove the death toll from an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis to 223.

Sources said that 1,045 patients have been admitted for treatment of encephalitis since last Jan. 1 2017; 18 of them on one day this week.


Cyprus: Malaria

The health ministry announced Sep. 16 that 3 malaria cases have been recorded in the north in British tourists, but there was no cause for concern as the transmission risk is very low.

The ministry said that it had been informed by the World Health Organization that the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control diagnosed 3 malaria cases in British tourists who visited the north in August.

The visitors stayed in a resort in Ayios Amvrosios, Kyrenia, and the symptoms began in the last week of August, and they were diagnosed after their return to the UK in the first week of September.

It has not yet been determined whether the patients contracted malaria in the north, but lab tests continue, and the ministry said that it had taken all preventive measures.

According to the ECDC, the risk of transmission is too low to be of concern, the ministry said. The last time malaria cases were recorded in Cyprus was in 1967.


Costa Rica: Malaria

The Costa Rica Health Ministry has declared a sanitary alert in the country for malaria due to an increase in the risk of transmission following an increase of infected patients in Nicaragua.

Although between the years 2012 and 2015 Costa Rica had not had any malaria cases there were a few patients in 2016 and this year there have been isolated native cases, 4 in Matina (Limón), 3 in Sarapiquí, Heredia, and 2 in Pital, San Carlos.

The high and constant migration between Nicaragua and Costa Rica increases the risk of transmission of this disease.

Malaria is a life-threatening disease usually transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito, which carries the Plasmodium parasite, usually found in tropical and subtropical climates. Malaria can also be transmitted from the mother to her baby at birth.

When the parasite is already in the human body it travels to the liver where it matures and after a few days it enters the bloodstream infecting red blood cells and multiplying. Malaria symptoms include high fever, headache, nausea, chills, profuse sweating, muscular pain, and sometimes vomiting.


Pakistan: Dengue virus

Dengue virus took another life in Peshawar Sept. 18 and 242 more people were diagnosed with dengue in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the provincial Health Department reported here.

The death of the latest victim of the mosquito-borne disease raises the death toll from dengue to 27 in that area so far. The man, 35, was from the Tehkal area of Peshawar and was admitted at the Khyber Teaching Hospital Sept. 16.

Dengue virus was first reported in the Tehkal area of the city in July, and then spread to the adjacent Pishtakhara area. It later became an epidemic when infected more and more residents of these areas.

The majority of these patients from Tehkal and Pishtakhara are being shifted to the Khyber Teaching Hospital as it is close to the dengue affected areas. The hospital has become overburdened due to heavy rush of dengue patients.

According to the Dengue Response Unit, 1,498 patients mainly suffering from fever and body ache were taken to different hospitals in the region, the majority of them in the provincial capital. Of 242 total dengue positive patients, 96 were admitted in the hospitals after 71 patients recovered from their disease and discharged from the hospitals. Presently 242 dengue patients are under hospitalization.


Indonesia: Avian influenza

RadarBali.com reports that a confirmed case of bird flu (H5N1) has claimed a victim in Bali in Banjar Minggir in the Village of Batununggul on Nusa Penida.

Officials from the Sanglah General Hospital and the Department of Healthcare said the victim died at Denpasar's main hospital.

RadarBali also reports that a much-feared human-to-human transmission was suspected when one of the doctors treating the Bird Flu victim was thought to be infected with the virus. Laboratory tests eventually confirmed that doctor was not infected with H5N1.

At the same time, the head of the Provincial Health Service did confirm one death due to H5N1 in Bali. The victim was from Banjar Minggir, Batununggul on Nusa Penida.

Health officials suspected that 2 other patients of being infected by bird flu, but who have now been cleared as free of the virus following laboratory tests.

USA: E. coli

The La Crosse County Health Department is investigating 8 cases of a "particularly nasty form" of the E. coli bacterium that forced the hospitalization of 6 children. Some of the children have recovered and been released from the hospital, said Paula Silha, education manager at the Health Department who declined to name where the children live for privacy concerns. 

The variant in these cases, E. coli O157, is "a particularly nasty form, which produces a toxin that can be harmful to the body organs such as the kidneys," Silha said. The hospitalized children had developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a toxin that can damage kidneys, she said.

The Health Department is working with the Wisconsin Division of Health to contain the outbreak, Silha said. The ongoing investigation has not identified a single source of infection or contamination.

E. coli is transmitted by eating contaminated food or water and by contact with fecal material from infected people or animals, she said.

September 15, 2017

Tanzania: Anthrax

An outbreak of anthrax has killed at least 42 hippos in south-central Tanzania's famed Ruaha National Park, authorities have said. Christopher Timbuka, Ruaha Chief Park Warden, said earlier investigation show the wild animals were killed by anthrax, an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

According to the official, a survey carried between August and early September shows that death cases were found in 3 key areas, which are popular for hosting hippos in the sanctuary. "This is the largest number of hippos to have been killed in the park by the disease," Timbuka said, adding "We've already sent samples of the dead hippos to the Chief Government Chemist Laboratory Agency for more investigation."

He cited an acute water shortage in Great Ruaha River as one of the factors for an outbreak of the disease in the sanctuary. "We're perplexed with the limited water in the river, particularly during this dry season," said Timbuka, adding that hippos in the park move upstream over long distances as the river dries up in the dry season. "This forces them to congregate in large numbers in the few remaining areas along the river containing water of suitable volume and depth. And an outbreak of the infectious disease poses a deadly challenge to conservation," the official said, noting that hippos are supposed to remain submerged in water during the day to prevent overheating and severe sunburn.

Japan: E. coli

The city government of Maebashi in eastern Japan said a 3-year-old girl has died hit by an E. coli bacterial outbreak, after eating fried shrimp and bamboo shoots bought in August 2017 at a local delicatessen. The girl from Tokyo died in early September 2017 after being hospitalized, according to the city government, becoming the 1st fatality of last month's outbreak, the source of which has yet to be determined.

More than 20 people were infected with the O157 strain of E. coli after eating potato salad, marinade and other products purchased at delicatessens run by Fresh Corp. based in Ota, Gunma Prefecture. They suffered symptoms such as stomach aches. In addition to the girl, 10 other people were infected with E. coli after eating food bought at the Maebashi store.


Panama: Hantavirus

The Gorgas Commemorative Institute for Health Studies confirmed a new case of hantavirus from the Pintadita in Tonosi, Los Santos province.

The affected individual is a 62 year old woman who was hospitalized in the Nelson Collado Hospital in Chitre, Herrera province, and was subsequently released. Tests done by ICGES confirmed the woman's hantavirus disease.

Altogether, 17 cases have been registered: 4 in Las Tablas, 1 in Agua Buena de Los Santos and 12 in Tonosi district.


USA: West Nile

A Sauk County, Wisconsin horse has tested positive for West Nile virus, the Health Department reported. The test result confirms there are mosquitoes in the area infected with the virus that can transmit it to people and animals.

The Sauk County Health Department announced the test result in a news release Sept. 1. The Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection reported the positive test result to the state Division of Public Health.

Humans, horses, birds, and other animals get the virus when bitten by infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected birds. The virus is not transmitted person to person or directly between animals, or between animals and humans.


Madagascar: Plague

A 40 year old woman is suspected to have died from pneumonic plague. She died at the Respiratory Diseases Service of the hospital in Antananarivo-city, after being admitted on Sept. 10.

The victim had contracted the disease during a holiday in the east of the Big Island. "She was staying with her family in Toamasina, when 4 of the family, including the husband and wife, died suddenly. It was suspected plague," reported a relative.

The eastern part of the island is, however, not a plague area. It is feared that those deaths are connected to that of a person who came from Moramanga and was traveling in Toamasina. Sources reveal that the latter would have joined Toamasina by bush taxi, starting from Moramanga, following a suspected pneumonic plague outbreak. It is believed that a young man sitting next to him in the public transport was then infected, and also died.


India: Anthrax

Anthrax appears to have made a comeback in Andhra Pradesh state. As many as 6 people from Dumbriguda mandal were admitted to King George Hospital Sept. 10 with suspected anthrax symptoms. According to the doctors at the hospital’s dermatology department, 5 people approached the hospital with complaints of suspected cutaneous anthrax after a group of the villagers consumed the meat of a sick goat a few weeks ago.

The patients were reported to have developed rashes and pustules on their hands, legs, and face. They are kept in a quarantine ward and being treated with antibiotics, apart from regular dressings. 

In June, 5 patients from Kodupunjuvalasa village in Andhra Pradesh were confirmed positive for cutaneous anthrax and the mode of contracting infection was similar -- the victims ate meat of an infected goat.

Nigeria: Avian influenza

The Oyo state government has shut down a hatchery of a factory located at Oluyole over a suspected case of avian influenza.

The decision followed the spread of the virus at a factory in the Egbeda area of Ogun state, with the Oluyole farm as a hatchery.

Samples of day-old chicks were taken to a lab in Plateau state, for diagnosis. The results revealed the virus threat.


China: Avian influenza

The Centre for Health Protection of the Department of Health of HongKong is monitoring a notification from the National Health and Family Planning Commission that an additional human case of avian influenza was recorded from in Hunan. It strongly urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The 67-year-old male patient in Zhangjiajie had onset Aug. 27 and was admitted to a hospital for severe pneumonia. He had exposure to a live poultry market.

Travelers to the mainland or other affected areas were advised to avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets or farms.

September 8, 2017 

Saudi Arabia: MERS

There have been seven newly confirmed cases, two of them involving fatalities. There have also been six newly reported recoveries.

A 57-year-old Saudi male from Hail was listed in critical condition. The patient had a history of indirect contact with camels in the 14 days preceding onset of illness. Three women from Dawmat Aljandal were in stable condition, having been identified as asymptomatic contacts of a previously confirmed case.

A 36-year-old Saudi male from Buraidah was in critical condition. There was a history of direct contact with camels in the 14 days preceding onset of illness. A 69-year-old male from Jeddah was in critical condition.

Chile; Hantavirus

Health officials are intensifying operations in Tonosi due to new hantavirus cases. Carlos Muñoz, Regional Epidemiology Coordinator, stated that the cases include a 27-year-old woman and 2 males, 17 and 37 years old.

The woman was treated in the Tonosi Rural Hospital, whereas the other 2 cases were managed in the Joaquín Pablo Franco Hospital in Las Tablas, where the 37-year-old patient was released.

These cases have increased the total number of hantavirus fever cases to 12 and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome to 4. Of these hantavirus fever statistics, 11 cases are from the Tonosi region

Nigeria: Lassa fever

Lassa fever experts from all over Nigeria and beyond gathered in the Federal Capital Territory for 2 days to review the 2016/2017 Lassa fever outbreak and propose preparedness plans for subsequent outbreaks. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), together with the World Health Organization and supporting partners, hosted the outbreak after an August review meeting. Participants were drawn from the states affected by the outbreak this year, Lassa fever treatment facilities, diagnostic laboratories, NCDC surveillance, laboratory, and health emergency response teams, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Federal Ministry of Environment, and other key stakeholders.

Minister of State for Heath, Dr Osagie Enahire, applauded the NCDC for its efforts toward stemming the tides of Lassa fever in Nigeria and charged all present to find a lasting solution to the menace of the disease in the country. The chairperson of the National Steering Committee, Prof Oyewale Tomori gave an overview of Lassa fever outbreak since the virus was discovered in 1969 with a critical review of control efforts taken in the past which have not yielded needed results. He decried the unsustainable efforts that have plagued the surveillance system in Nigeria and called on every stakeholder to realign their activities to achieve a common goal of a strengthened surveillance system, which can be used as a strong tool in the fight against Lassa fever. He urged participants present to focus on finding practical solutions towards elimination of the disease.

A national report of the 2016/2017 Lassa fever outbreak was presented. A total of 764 suspected cases have been reported across 19 states with 247 of these cases confirmed and 14 classified as probable cases. A total of 83 deaths have been recorded. The case fatality rate is 33.6 percent in confirmed and probable cases and 15.1 percent in all cases (confirmed, probable, and suspected). The response activities carried out by the NCDC, including the development of Viral Haemorrhagic Fever [VHF] guidelines, deployment of rapid response teams, provision of ribavirin and other medical supplies to states and several others, were also discussed.

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

A suspected patient of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has been admitted in the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) [Islamabad] with symptoms of the disease.

According to hospital sources, the blood samples of the patient from Kashmir were sent to the National Institute of Health (NIH) and he was moved to the isolation ward of the hospital.

Dr Wasim Khawaja, a public health specialist at PIMS said that the majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians.

He said human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Hospital-acquired infections can also occur due to improper sterilization of medical equipment, reuse of needles, and contamination of medical supplies, he added.

He said following infection by a tick bite, the incubation period is usually one to 3 days, with a maximum of 9 days. The incubation period following contact with infected blood or tissues is usually 5 to 6 days, with symptoms including fever, muscle ache, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, backache, headache, sore eyes, and photophobia (sensitivity to light). He said there may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sore throat early on, followed by sharp mood swings and confusion.

Chile: Hantavirus

Two new cases of hantavirus have been confirmed by the Araucanía local ministerial unit in Chile. Both cases are adults, 72 and 69 years of age, residents of rural localities in Collipulli. The 1st patient presented with intense abdominal pain and dehydration. The individual remains hospitalized.  The 2nd patient was hospitalized with a fever, headache, and sore throat.

Taiwan: Avian influenza

New Taipei City is on high alert after a local slaughterhouse reported H5 avian influenza infections in chickens on 3 of its 9 slaughter lines. The New Taipei City Domestic Poultry Slaughterhouse found one chicken on each of the 3 lines showed symptoms of avian flu infection, such as sporadic redness on the body, swelling around the eyes and hemorrhaging on the feet. Veterinarians at the slaughterhouse informed the office and the Council of Agriculture of the findings. 

An investigation traced the infected poultry to 2 chicken farms, one in Yunlin County and the other in Taoyuan, the office said. Based on the findings, 40 other suspect chicken carcasses were frozen and sealed, it said.

Local animal quarantine authorities were notified of the need to quarantine the sources, while the 3 slaughter lines were shut down for sterilization, it added.

Laboratory tests have confirmed that the problematic chickens were infected with the H5 strain, the office said, and as a result, the 40 frozen chickens were destroyed in an effort to prevent the virus from spreading.

New Taipei City consumes the most chickens of any of the nation's municipalities, and the number of chickens slaughtered there reaches 30 000 to 40 000 per day, the office said. The reported H5 outbreak was caused by HPAI H5N8. The infected chickens came from poultry farms in Taoyuan's Dasi District and Yunlin County's Shueilin Township

China: Avian influenza

The China National Health and Family Planning Commission has reported an additional human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Jiangsu.

The male patient, 58, in Zhenjiang has died. He had exposure to a live poultry market before onset.

Since 2013, 1,561 human cases have been reported, all but 31 in China. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected.

Although small clusters of cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported, including those involving patients in the same ward, current epidemiological and virological evidence suggests that this virus has not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans.

Canada: Equine infectious anemia

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has been found in Manitoba for the first time since 2006 and 14 horses have been euthanized in the province so far this year, according to a veterinarian with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency [CFIA].

The disease, sometimes called "swamp fever," is eventually fatal, said the CFIA's Dr Alex McIsaac. It starts with intermittent fever, then progresses to jaundice, swelling underneath the horse's abdomen and on its legs, and tiny hemorrhaging in its eyes. "Eventually, the horse is hanging its head down, is unable to breathe, and eventually will die," said McIsaac.

There is no human health risk from the disease, according to the food inspection agency.

There have been 14 cases found on 6 farms in Manitoba in 2017, said McIsaac, including in the rural municipalities of Armstrong, St Clements, St Andrews, and Hanover. All 6 farms were put under quarantine but 2 of those quarantines have since been lifted. All 14 affected horses were put down to prevent suffering.

Equine infectious anemia is a viral disease transmitted by biting insects, mostly flies. From there, it can be transmitted from horse to horse and throughout a herd, said McIsaac.

Brazil: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

The first fatality from spotted fever in the city this year has been confirmed. The victim, a 48-year-old housekeeper who lived and worked in a small farm in the Praia dos Namorados neighborhood of São Paulo, died Aug. 10, a day after being hospitalized.

According to the Epidemiological Surveillance of the municipality, the caretaker began to present symptoms such as fever, headache, diarrhea, and muscular pain on Aug. 7, and upon entering the hospital "his clinical condition was already very serious."

Confirmation of the positive case of spotted fever occurred after analysis at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, which identified the DNA of the bacterium.

The City Hall reported that a staff of the Program for the Prevention and Control of Ticks and Scorpions was at the probable site of the infection and conducted tick research at the farm where the caretaker worked.

USA: Lyme Disease

A cluster of Lyme disease cases on Staten Island is causing concern after one woman wound up with spinal meningitis because of a tick bite.

The growing deer population has long been a problem on Staten Island. "We have deer that walk down our street like they own," the woman said. "They're beautiful, but they're not so pretty anymore." She was bitten by a deer tick, which her doctors say infected her with Lyme disease.

Since she went undiagnosed for four months, it developed into spinal mening

September 1, 2017

South Africa: Avian flu

Avian flu has spread to a commercial layer poultry farm in the Western Cape province of South Africa, killing at least 30 000 chickens. There are 140 000 chickens on the affected farm in the Paardeberg region; the rest are to be culled.

The virus has not yet been confirmed as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) type H5N8, which is the strain in outbreaks in other parts of the country. However, the H5 typing, and the nature of its effect on chickens, is indicative of it being the H5N8 strain, according to official sources in the area. 
State officials are considering two options for presentation to the poultry industry in response to the discovery. One is for a national program of risk mitigation through stringent quarantine measures on arrival of the hatching eggs from their country of origin. The second option is for stringent quarantine measures in the country of origin where eggs will come from compartments free of specified diseases.

Panama: Hantavirus

The number of cases of hantavirus infections in Panama has risen to 14,  the Ministry of Health confirming three new cases of fever and hantavirus this week. Carlos Muñoz, regional coordinator of epidemiology in Los Santos, stated that the three latest cases registered are a girl whose illness is yet to be confirmed as hantavirus fever, a 44 year old woman resident of Via Hacia Santo Domingo with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome admitted Aug. 24, and a 23 year old young man with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.

Greece: West Nile virus

Greek authorities said Aug. 25 that three people in Greece infected with the West Nile virus died of complications related to the illness this summer. All cases were reported in August and all victims were over 70 years old, the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KEELPNO) noted.
A total of 37 cases have been detected this year, including a patient who is still in intensive care. In most cases, patients suffered from mild symptoms. It was mainly elderly patients with other chronic illnesses who faced severe complications, according to KEELPNO.

The West Nile virus was first detected in Greece in 2010, when 262 confirmed cases of the disease were recorded, among them, 35 fatal. No cases were recorded in 2015 and 2016. KEELPNO advised the public to take measures to protect themselves against mosquitoes which can transmit the dangerous virus.

Uganda: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

Uganda has been placed on high alert as the Ministry of Health investigates and monitors suspected cases of the deadly Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the central districts of Kiboga and Nakaseke. On Aug. 20, the ministry received blood samples of two patients from Kiboga and Nakaseke hospital suspected Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF).

According to a statement signed by Dr. Anthony Mbonye, the acting Director General for health services, the 2 victims tested positive for the disease.

CCHF is a common disease among humans and animals caused by caused by a tick-borne virus; the virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.
According to Ministry of health, the majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians and that human-to-human transmission occurs from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected persons.

Indonesia: Anthrax

Cattle deaths due to anthrax bacteria re-spread in the Gorontalo District of Indonesia. At least 25 cows owned by local residents were reported dead suddenly in Tumbuo Hamlet, Tenilo. There is fear that the presence of cow carcasses will spread the bacteria to humans and also kill more cows.

"We have received reports of the cow's death in Tumbuo Village," said Vivi Tayeb, Head of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health, Gorontalo district on Aug 28.

After receiving the report, Vivi Tayeb and the team headed straight for the village on the outskirts of Lake Limboto to conduct the examination. The results of examination of dozens of cows showed they were affected by anthrax. "We immediately did the vaccinations so [the infection will not]spread to other cows," said Vivi Tayeb.

Philippines: Japanese encephalitis

The provincial health office in Laguna, Philippines said two children succumbed to Japanese encephalitis, the first confirmed cases of the mosquito-borne disease in the Southern Tagalog province this year.

On Aug. 29, Dr Rene Bagamasbad, Laguna health officer, said the victims were a 9-year-old boy in Calauan town and a 6-year-old boy in San Pablo City. He said the children died around two weeks ago.
Calauan and San Pablo City, being adjacent to each other, were also placed under investigation by the health office.

The disease, which is transmitted by the Culex mosquito, commonly causes abdominal pains, fever, and seizures. It may also cause a part of the brain to swell.

Vaccines are available. But there is no cure yet for the disease. Vaccines are currently not part of the government's immunization program.

Two people including a woman died of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), commonly known as Congo virus, in Pakistan Aug. 26.

According to Health Department sources, a male suffering from Congo virus, expired while being shifted to Quetta for treatment. A woman in the locality also fell to the fatal Congo virus. Several people were hospitalized after being found affected with the virus. The locals have demanded the provincial government and health authorities take measures to prevent further spread of the disease.

Mauritania: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

On 24 Aug 2017, the Mauritania Ministry of Health notified the World Health Organization of a confirmed case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in a 47-year-old shepherd, from Arafat Village in Mohammedia, Boutilimit Prefecture, located about 150 km southeast of the capital, Nouakchott.

In May 2017, health officials reported two cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Senegal imported from Mauritania. A third imported case was reported in June 2017.

In the most recent case, the patient developed headache, muscle and joints pains and diarrhea on Aug. 20 and sought medical attention. He was treated with anti-malarial medicines and analgesics.
After two days, he returned for medical care as his condition worsened. He was tested for CCHF because of bleeding manifestations. The patient is still hospitalized and in stable clinical condition. According to the WHO, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.

CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north, the geographical limit of the principal tick vector. The hosts of the CCHF virus include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.

Animals become infected by the bite of infected ticks, and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about one week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites. Although a number of tick genera are capable of becoming infected with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the principal vectors.

The CCHF virus is transmitted to people either by tick bites or through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and immediately after slaughter.

August 25, 2017

United Kingdom: African swine fever

Reacting to the continued spread of African Swine Fever across eastern Europe, the United Kingdom’s Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has upgraded the threat warning from ‘very low’ to ‘low.’ The change means that UK officials now believe that, while rare, now could spread to that country.

The disease, found in pigs, entered Europe through Georgia in 2007, and has since been found in the Russian Federation and eastern Europe, including EU countries in the Baltic States, Poland and very recently the Czech Republic. Although most commonly seen in wild boar, earlier this month an outbreak was confirmed for the first time in Romania among backyard pigs.

African swine fever is caused by infection with ASF virus (ASFV), which can have fatality rates of up to 100 per cent. The virus causes acute disease in domestic pigs and wild boar, and may cause varying clinical signs that are similar to other pig diseases such as high fever, lethargy and loss of appetite.

Although the virus does not cause disease in humans, the impact it has on the economy, especially through trade and farming, is substantial. As a consequence of ASF in Poland and the Baltic States the value of pork and pig exports was reduced by $960 million.

Experts view an outbreak in the UK as unlikely since imports of meat and pigs are well regulated and the country does not have a wild boar population substantial enough or widespread enough to maintain an outbreak. However, personal imports of pork products from affected areas could result in disease incursion if deliberately or accidently fed to pigs or wild boar, actions which are illegal.

USA: Equine infectious anemia

Also this week, authorities said a horse property in southwest Kansas is under quarantine following confirmation of six cases of equine infectious anemia there. The infected horses on the property in Finney County will be euthanized because there is no cure and there is a risk the animals may infect other horses.

The Kansas Department of Agriculture's Division of Animal Health was told this month of the initial positive test for the disease, also known as Swamp fever. The horse facility was quarantined and all the exposed horses were tested. The remaining horses at the facility will be observed and retested in 60 days.

Equine infectious anemia is most commonly spread by biting flies and ticks, or sometimes through the shared used of blood-contaminated instruments or needles. The disease does not affect people, but it can be spread to horses, mules and donkeys.
The pathogen causing the disease is categorized as a lentivirus: it contains genetic RNA material, which it uses to produce DNA. This DNA is then incorporated into the genetic makeup of infected cells.

Japan: E. coli

In Japan, the city of Yokohama has ordered a grilled-meat restaurant to suspend operation after two people who had dined there were infected with E. coli. A teenage girl and a man in his 80s had symptoms of food poisoning, including diarrhea, after eating separately at the restaurant late in July. Both were hospitalized and are recovering, according to the local government.

The announcement followed an outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Gunma and Saitama prefectures. The city of Takasaki conducted on-site inspections at a food processing plant after potato salad produced there infected 12 people in the two prefectures, including a 5 year old girl who became gravely ill and temporarily lost consciousness. During the inspections, officials looked into the manufacturing processes at the plant, which shipped the potato salad that found its way to delicatessens in Gunma and Saitama prefectures, according to the city.

China: Avian influenza

A travel warning was issued for the Hunan area of China following discovery of a new human case of avian influenza. Authorities strongly urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The 47 year old male patient in Xiangxi was known to have had exposure to a live poultry market. He became sick Aug. 9 and died four days later.

Pakistan: Chikungunya virus

At least four people in Pakistan have died after contracting the chikungunya virus -- which is usually non-life threatening. According to the district health officer, 567 people have been diagnosed with the chikungunya virus in the district in the past three weeks. However, locals and doctors claim more than 2,000 people have been affected by the virus in Tharparkar.

The chief executive officer of the Health and Nutrition Development Society attributed the deaths to poor treatment or self-medication.

According to the DHO's statement, most affected villages include Ram Sighani, Udani and Fangario, among others, where medical camps are being set up to treat patients.

The DHO said that the increase in the cases of the virus was due to heavy rainfall in the arid region, adding that the situation was "under control", and that various villages have already been fumigated twice to get rid of the virus-carrying mosquitoes. 

August 16, 2017

Namibia: Congo fever

One person has died of Congo fever in Namibia bringing the number of people to die from the disease this year to two, the country's ministry of health and social services has reported.

Health ministry acting Permanent Secretary Bertha Katjivena announced at a press conference Aug. 10 that the deceased, aged 63, died the previous day after being admitted at Windhoek Central Hospital Aug. 7.

The man had previously been treated at a private hospital for headache, chills, body aches, nausea and vomiting. Blood samples were sent for testing to South Africa, and the results came out positive for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

Three people who were in close contact with the man have been admitted to the Windhoek Central Hospital and are being kept in isolation.

Katjivena said the man had travelled from the Uukwandongo village in the Okahao district of the Omusati region to Windhoek for an event on 1 Aug 2017. "He had a history of a tick bite about a week and a half,” she said.

She added that people in the man’s village are being closely monitored. This is the third case of the fever reported in Namibia this year.

In February, a 26-year-old farmworker died from Congo fever at the Gobabis District Hospital.
The unidentified man died after being admitted to hospital when he vomited blood. He was treated for fever, diarrhea after being bitten by a tick.

Eastern Europe: African swine fever

African swine fever continued during the week to pose problems in various Eastern European locales.  Two new outbreaks were reported in Latvia, both involving wild boars. In the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia, additional outbreaks were also reported. 

August 11, 2017

Armenia: Foot and mouth disease

An outbreak of foot and mouth disease has been identified in Armenia.

Word was received this week of the outbreak, which reportedly has been ongoing for about a month in the villages of Debet and Dsegh in the Lori region. Local authorities estimated that about 60 percent of the livestock population is infected, amounting to more than 700 animals.

Pakistan: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

A case of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever was reported in the Chachai Singhwala area of Pakistan. The case involved a patient reporting severe intestinal pain and fever. The tick-borne virus has a case fatality rate of 10 to 40 percent.

Eastern Europe: African swine fever

Officials in central and eastern Europe continued their efforts to slow the spread of African swine fever, where developments were reported in several countries.

In the Czech Republic, additional cases were reported in wild boar. In Poland, where the disease has been a problem for three years, seven new cases were reported in the eastern part of the country near the Belarus border. Additional new reports were received in Latvia, Ukraine, and Russia.

Saudi Arabia: MERS

Officials in Saudi Arabia reported two new confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome as well as two new fatalities and one recovery.

The two new cases were reported in the Al Jawf region of the nation, involving female health care workers. Both were reported to be in stable condition.

One of the fatalities was a 50-year-old Saudi male. The other was a 59-year-old expatriot living in the Asir region.

August 4, 2017

Eastern Europe: African swine fever

The Eastern European outbreak of African swine fever continued its spread during the past week.

Increased activity was reported in the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Romania and Russia. Most of that activity was attributed to the region’s wild boar population, although in a few cases domestic swine production was also affected.

The outbreak was initially identified in Russia and Poland in 2014, but has spread to several other countries in the intervening three years.

Switzerland: Rabies

A new rabies outbreak was reported in Switzerland. A serotine bat was diagnoses as rabies positive after falling moribund at the feet of a person in broad daylight. The person was bitten.

The incident represents the first case of rabies in Switzerland since 2002.

Avian influenza

There were also developments during the past week in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in several regions of the world. In China, where the outbreak was first reported in 2014, the number of identified cases was increased to 35,000. In Italy, where the disease was identified in 2015, new cases were reported at a commercial turkey farm. In Myanmar, where an outbreak was reported in June of 2017, a second outbreak affecting chickens in a village was confirmed. Developments were also reported in previously identified incidents in South Africa and Chinese Taipei.

July 28, 2017

Nigeria: Rift Valley fever

A total of four incidents of Rift Valley Fever were reported in Nigeria, involving 443 cattle. The incidents all were reported to have occurred July 11 in four villages in various parts of the country, and all were listed as resolved. Authorities said cattle, sheep and goat sera samples were collected during active surveillance

USA: E. coli

An outbreak of E. coli was reported July 21 at a summer camp near Cleveland. Two confirmed cases of E. coli were reported at the Plast Camp in Geauga County. E. coli is a bacterial infection that can travel quickly, especially among groups of children. The source of the infection is not yet clear.  Local health officials have closed the swimming pool, although they say the source of the bacterium could also be in the water wells or food. More than 200 children, ages 6 to 18, had attended the camp.

African swine fever

There were developments during the past week in several area of the world related to cases of African Swine Fever. In Poland, a new case – this one in a wild boar -- was reported in an outbreak that has been developing for more than three years. In the Czech Republic, where ASF was detected a month ago, samples have been taken for testing from a wild boar found dead this past week. In Ukraine, two additional cases have been discovered in wild boars from an outbreak identified in May. In Russia, where officials have been fighting an outbreak for more than three years, two domestic swine were identified as infected in the Vladmiriskaya Oblast.

Colombia: Foot and mouth disease

There were no new developments made public this week in the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease reported last month in Colombia. That outbreak had been identified at five farms and involved the death or euthanasia of nearly 300 bovines. Inspections were conducted at about 130 farms in the area.